CR4 - The Engineer's Place for News and Discussion®

GEA's Global HVAC Technology Blog

GEA's Global HVAC Technology Blog covers a range of topics including:

  • Core HVAC Technologies
  • Technology & Patent Evaluation
  • Manufacturing Technologies
  • Product Quality Improvement
  • Materials/Failures/Corrosion
  • Product/Technology Commercialization
  • Business Strategy Development
  • New Factory Design & Equipment

We'll draw upon our range of experts to provide comments, insights, technical articles and a little humor from time to time

We encourage your participation and feedback!

Worldwide Energy Data and Trends

Posted August 12, 2015 1:00 AM by larhere
Pathfinder Tags: energy data energy trends trends

Energy is a leading topic for HVAC manufacturers, building owners, consultants and engineers around the world. It is a cornerstone in developing and executing a successful business strategy in today's rapidly evolving business environment where radical changes in price, availability and new energy sources compete with rapidly evolving environmental concerns and constraints.

Now, more than ever, leaders, managers, engineers need to understand the drivers in the energy industry. This starts with accurate (historical) data. Statista, a leading aggregator of data, has recently performed a study of past, present and future prices of the world's primary energies. Forecasts through 2035 are included. Examples from their slide summary can be seen below.

Download a copy of the complete PDF slide summary (Energy Prices Worldwide) complements of Industry Week.

Editor's Note: CR4 would like to thank GEA Consulting's President, Larry Butz,, for contributing this blog entry, originally appearing at

1 comments; last comment on 08/16/2015
View/add comments

Corrosion Analysis: Monitor Results

Posted July 22, 2015 1:00 AM by larhere

To mangle Dr. Seuss a little; The time has come, the time is now, to wrap up our 6-part series "A Real Corrosion Story", by discussing the final step. (I'm including links to my prior blog posts for easy reference).

1. Identify the corrosion mechanism.

2. Understand the environment, both external and internal.

3. Understand the equipment - materials of construction, operating cycles, hours.....

4. Identify alternatives - materials, coatings, limiting operating envelope, changing the environment (water treatment, alternative lubricants/refrigerants, filter the air, etc.), redesign the machine (better drainage, eliminate contact of dissimilar metals, .....)

5. Implement change.

6. Monitor results.

It seems obvious, that after all the effort, time and money we've spent completing the first 5 steps to address corrosion problems, we would take time to monitor the results and assure we've truly solved the problems we were addressing. Yet, as we all know, common sense isn't always common practice.

After changes have been implemented we're pressured, by others or by ourselves, to move on and get to work on the next item on our list of things to do. However, monitoring results doesn't need to be time consuming or difficult, but it is something that should be planned, with clear criteria established to measure how well we've done.

It's surprising how often as a consultant I've been called in to work on problems that were previously addressed by manufacturers, but nobody clearly remembers what was done to solve the problems and what the results were. All anybody knows is that something was done and now (sometimes years later) the problem is back (or never really went away).

Bottom line, follow all of the steps outlined in this 6 step process and if you happen to find you've missed something as you monitor the results, don't hesitate to go back and tweak your solution to assure you get the results you were counting on.

Editor's Note: CR4 would like to thank P J Sikorsky, GEA Consulting Associate, for contributing this blog entry, originally appearing at

1 comments; last comment on 07/23/2015
View/add comments

US Ruling Gives Supermarkets A Year To Switch From High-GWP Refrigerants

Posted July 15, 2015 1:00 AM by larhere

EPA ruling will see R404A, R422D and R507A prohibited as early as July 2016 in supermarket systems as US takes more radical stance than Europe over high-GWP gases

  • Medium Temperature and Low Temperature standalone units will not be allowed to use the high-and medium-GWP refrigerants such as R134a, R407A and R407F in new equipment in 2019/2020
  • The ruling also endorses the alternative refrigerants proposed in April including propane, ethane, isobutane and the hydrocarbon blend R441A. HFC refrigerant R32 is endorsed for use only in room air conditioning.

Read the full article from UK's leading source of refrigeration and air conditioning news, rac


The tongue-in-cheek term of "dial-a-refrigerant" is becoming a reality as carefully selected refrigerants (combinations) are being approved and disapproved by unique applications.

You might also be interested in these recent blog posts:

Refrigerants-Consider Full Range of UsageCustom Refrigerants-Are You Ready?

Editor's Note: CR4 would like to thank GEA Consulting's President, Larry Butz,, for contributing this blog entry, originally appearing at

6 comments; last comment on 07/16/2015
View/add comments

U.S.' Most Energy Efficient Cities-How Do They Do it?

Posted July 01, 2015 8:36 AM by larhere

Mayors and local lawmakers in America's largest cities continue to take innovative steps to lower energy costs for consumers and businesses, increase their resilience, and reduce pollution through increased energy efficiency, according to the 2nd edition of the City Energy Efficiency Scorecard, released recently by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE).

The top 10 US cities for energy efficiency are:

  1. Boston
  2. New York City
  3. Washington, DC
  4. San Francisco
  5. Seattle
  6. Chicago
  7. Minneapolis
  8. Portland
  9. Austin
  10. Denver

How Are They Doing it?

  • Government operations. Leaders in efficiency in local government operations have set policies to increase efficiency in city government, procurement, and asset management.
  • Community initiatives. The top-scoring cities have both the systems to track progress toward efficiency-related goals for the whole community, and strategies to mitigate urban heat islands. They also have efficient distributed-energy systems, such as district energy and combined heat and power, and policies or programs to plan for future ones.
  • Buildings. Leading cities have adopted or advocated for stringent building energy codes, devoted resources to building code compliance, established requirements and incentives for efficient buildings, and increased the availability of information on energy use in buildings through benchmarking and transparency policies.
  • Utilities. The leading citieshave energy efficiency programs that offer high levels of savings. These cities also have productive relationships with their utilities in program implementation and access to energy data.
  • Transportation. Cities with the top transportation policy have initiatives which include location-efficiency strategies, shifts to efficient modes of transportation, transit investments, efficient vehicles and vehicle infrastructure, and energy-efficient freight transport.

Where Does Your City Rate?

Download the complete report

How can GEA help your company become a leader in High Efficiency HVAC equipment and systems?

Editor's Note: CR4 would like to thank GEA Consulting's President, Larry Butz,, for contributing this blog entry, originally appearing at

Add a comment

MHI Chooses HFO-1233zd(E) for New Centrifugal Chillers

Posted June 18, 2015 9:57 AM by larhere
Pathfinder Tags: HFO New Refrigerants refrigerants

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has announced the availability of their new ETI-Z Series Centrifugal chillers based on environmentally friendly HFO-1233zd(E). Trane previously announced the availability of their Series E CenTraVac chillers with this new refrigerant which is also seeing increasing use in the foam blowing industry. The Trane offering ranges from 2,600kW to 14,000kW; MHI's new ETI-Z Series comes in sizes from 280kW to 2,460kW with plans to extend the line up to 5275kW.

High performance is achieved by reducing motor drive-energy loss through the adoption of a compressor with high-speed direct motor drive which allows elimination of gears and use of fewer bearings. Rated COP (coefficient of performance) of 6.7 is claimed.

The new ETI-Z chillers will begin shipping in September.

Read More

Editor's Note: CR4 would like to thank GEA Consulting's President, Larry Butz,, for contributing this blog entry, originally appearing at

Add a comment

US HVAC Equipment Market and Forecast

Posted May 20, 2015 1:00 AM by larhere

The Freedonia Group just released a 300+ page market study titled US HVAC

Equipment Market and Forecast

which presents historical demand data for 2004, 2009 and 2014 plus forecasts for 2019 and 2024 by fuel type, equipment type and market.

Among the analyses, observations and conclusions;

  • Shipments of HVAC equipment will grow 6.0 percent per year through 2019 to $16.5 billion
  • Demand for HVAC equipment is forecast to increase 6.8 percent annually through 2019 to $20.4 billion
  • Imports will account for a growing share of demand for all HVAC products, exceeding 25 percent of the total in 2019
  • Regulations regarding refrigerant usage and equipment efficiency will continue to have a positive effect on HVAC equipment demand
  • Unitary air conditioners will continue to comprise the largest share of total HVAC system demand, accounting for 44 percent of sales by 2019
  • Heat pumps and warm air furnaces will both post the fastest gains through 2019
  • The nonresidential market will continue to comprise the larger share of overall HVAC equipment demand in value terms, due to the larger size of these HVAC systems
  • Growth in the residential market will significantly outpace that in the nonresidential market through 2019
  • Electricity is by far the leading fuel source used to power HVAC equipment. Geothermal energy will post the strongest gains of any fuel source through 2019 from a low 2014 base
  • In both residential and nonresidential markets, replacement purchases will continue to account for the bulk of sales

The study (available at Fredonia Group) considers market environment factors, examines the industry structure, evaluates company market share and profiles 32 US industry competitors, including Daikin, Ingersoll- Rand, Lennox and United Technologies. A summary of the report can be viewed at Global Information Research.

View Recent Blog Posts

Top HVAC Trends for 2015

50%+ Increase in US Shipments of AC and ASHP in December

HVAC Industry Shows Strength

Editor's Note: CR4 would like to thank GEA Consulting's President, Larry Butz,, for contributing this blog entry, originally appearing at

Add a comment

Previous in Blog: Corrosion Analysis:Implementing Change  
Show all Blog Entries in this Blog