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Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/25/2017 11:52 PM

i have a lake water sample which i've got to purify and make it potable, the sample contains 100 times more mercury than the optimum range. How do I purify this ?

will evaporating and condensing the sample yield the required result?

how effective is alum or aluminium sulphate after the sample being treated with activated charcoal, in removing the mercury?

also, the sample contains good amounts of phosphates and nitrates causing frothing of the water.

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#1

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:02 AM

..."Removing mercury from the water can be achieved using four processes: Coagulation/Filtration, Granular Activated Carbon, Lime Softening, and Reverse Osmosis. Coagulation/filtration is a common treatment which uses AlSO4 that reacts with the mercury to form a solid which can precipitate out of the water."...

http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/hg/mercury_water/removalmercury.htm

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#3
In reply to #1

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:14 AM

i've read this particular article, but i require a detailed insight on the process, also does evaporation and condensation help?

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#4
In reply to #3

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:37 AM

The first sentence of the website I referenced says, "Removing mercury from the water can be achieved using four processes: Coagulation/Filtration, Granular Activated Carbon, Lime Softening, and Reverse Osmosis."

You must be able to gain some insight from that sentence.

Mercury in Water - The Pure Water Occasional

Why not try Google?

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#6
In reply to #4

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:49 AM

How effective is the use of alum against Mercury? In percentage

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#7
In reply to #6

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 4:09 AM

Without knowing quantities and concentrations, it is impossible to advise.

How about starting with some numbers based upon the principle of [input] = [output] + [accumulation], which have been withheld from the forum?

What does <...sample...> actually mean? How much mercury needs to come out of this sample and what would be the minimum acceptable for the intended use? Why this particular water source and not some other with a lower concentration?

Help the forum to provide the requested help!

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#9
In reply to #7

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 5:33 AM

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#10
In reply to #9

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 5:34 AM

Does this help?

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#11
In reply to #10

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 6:36 AM

Not yet. What else is there?

Keep it coming...

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#12
In reply to #11

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 6:55 AM

This is all I've got, what else is needed?

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#14
In reply to #12

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 7:24 AM

See #7⇑ and #13⇓. Otherwise, "a >99% reduction in mercury concentrations" is about all the forum has got.

Help the forum to provide the help needed.

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#15
In reply to #12

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 7:38 AM

Blending would also work: 1% sample water and the remaining 99% from a zero-mercury water source. Then, why would one bother using the 1% sample water in the first place (rhetorical question - NNTR)? Blending is carried out routinely in the UK to achieve lowered nitrate levels, for example.

What is the value of the sample water once purified in comparison to that available from other sources? Quantities are important - one can purchase 2.5L of water in a bottle from a supermarket here for £1GBP, for example, whereas it comes out of the tap as wholesome and potable for less than £1GBP per m3, "24/7/365" <yuk>.

<...got to...> What does this mean?

Help the forum to provide the help needed.

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#24
In reply to #9

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 10:51 AM

Well for one I don't see any designators for your mercury values other than assuming its based on the same MPN/100mL standard the items below it are based on which if so 1 MPN/100mL equates to something like 1 PPB or one Part Per Billion which is half of what is considered safe acceptable standards for potable water.

If that's the case you'r wasting time and money chasing after nothing of significant concern and there are some very effective medications your time and money could be spent on adding to your drinking water to greatly reduce those self perceived issues.

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#25
In reply to #9

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:48 PM

Optimum range of lead is .1 ? I don't think so....also what about chemicals and other organics....this list is not sufficient for potable water....

https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/table-regulated-drinking-water-contaminants

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#30
In reply to #9

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/27/2017 5:27 AM

The optimum range for lead and mercury in water is zero. While trying to reduce the mercury content, what are you doing about the lead, not to mention the E. coli?

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#8
In reply to #6

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 4:11 AM

42%

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#34
In reply to #8

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/27/2017 11:04 AM

No, you are 100% moron.

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#38
In reply to #34

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/30/2017 2:41 AM

You are quiet correct.

42 would be the answer.

BTW I am not Anon.

Marking this OT.

We are still unsure about the unit system but its not percent, right?

Oh this comment almost made it not OT so I retract my OT.

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#5
In reply to #3

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:37 AM

"... also does evaporation and condensation help?"

Distillation certainly wouldn't hurt as mercury tends to evaporate at much higher temps?

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#19
In reply to #5

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 7:59 AM

'...mercury tends to evaporate at much higher temps....'

....well, yes. It also tends to evaporate at lower temps when Hg partial pressure is less than Hg saturation vapor pressure.

Forming amalgams in condensate coils would be one form of certain hurting.

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#35
In reply to #5

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/27/2017 11:04 AM

Bad idea.

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#13
In reply to #3

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 6:59 AM

E & C will only prove viable if there is a source of cheap, low-grade heat available. Without some idea as to the amount of water <...sample...> to be processed (Egg-cup full? Bucket-full? Rail tank car full? Lake full?) and the utilities to be found in the location (Solar? Wind? Mains electricity? Steam? Dino-fuels?) and the waste disposal route (Tip it back in? Bury it? Specialised waste processor with a view to recovery and resale of the mercury?) and the environs (Middle of Nowhere-City Arizona?, downtown Chicken-coop Turkmenistan? Central Xi-an China?) the forum's chance of scoring a direct hit on the answers required by the original poster looks impossibly remote.

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#17
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Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 7:54 AM

this is just a small prototype for purifying about 20 litres, we'll be using solar concentrators for vapourization, waste product disposal is by burial. we plan on removing mercury and other phosphates and nitrates using alum and activated charcoal and then the E & C comes in. location- india. this is a picture showing what we are dealing with.

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#18
In reply to #17

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 7:58 AM

The prototype for a sample of 20L might consist of a vessel the size of a bucket with a quantity of activated carbon contained therein. As already indicated in other replies, activated carbon, among other techniques, certainly works.

However, the size of the problem would appear from the photograph to be larger than an informal exchange on an anonymous international Engineering blogsite can tackle. Scaling-up activated carbon might prove uneconomic, thereby tipping the balance in favour of other techniques.

So it is recommended that the matter be addressed to an international firm of Consulting Engineers familiar with and specialising in these sorts of flowrates, which will certainly ask, similar to the requests in #7 and #13, for more information on the scale of the problem to be tackled before coming up with solutions.

On that basis,

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#31
In reply to #17

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/27/2017 8:05 AM

Ahah! Another option is to move the intake higher upstream and away from the mercury, and to leave the lake water alone. After all, the mission is now a supply of potable water, not the cleaning-up of the lake.

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#39
In reply to #17

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/30/2017 9:58 AM

Based upon that photo, the mercury contamination is the least of your worries.

That foamed up bunch of mess is not water, it is the BLOB! RUN FOR YOUR LIVES!

Seriously, you need major quantities of silicone defoamer before you attempt evaporation-condensation. You should still consider absorptive and adsorptive techniques such as activated carbon and/or eggshells before distillation.

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#16
In reply to #3

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 7:52 AM

It depends upon where the product water is to be used:

  • Were it to be on board a large vessel, for example, then E&C is routinely carried out using waste heat from the vessel's propulsion systems. Smaller vessels, or those with lower occupancy, might be designed to bunker potable water at various ports instead of making it en route.
  • The Mediterranean island of Cyprus, for example, has a major Reverse Osmosis separation system installed in Larnaca to produce domestic potable. Pressure-exchangers can achieve power cost savings that make the process viable where no alternative water source is available and no low-grade heat source is to hand.

In both examples, the rejected concentrate is dumped back to source; that may or may not be possible at the sample water's location.

Hence the need for further information as indicated in #7 and #13. As, reportedly at #12, none is available, this thread grinds to a halt.

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#20
In reply to #16

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 8:03 AM

how pure can the condensate be in this case ? if i'm vapourizing water at 200oC, and condensing at 4oC ?

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#21
In reply to #20

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 8:06 AM

The question is addressed by looking at the vapour pressures of both water and mercury at 200degC and carrying out a mass balance calculation, as already suggested in #7⇑, along well-defined Process Engineering principles.

The vapour pressure of water at 200degC is readily available from steam tables, which information is widely in the public domain.

Re-hardening to raise the level of calcium in the product water is routinely carried out in equipment that uses evaporation as the separation technique. Purity is thus reduced in order to produce a water that is potable.

The World Health Organisation has standards on the limits of substances to be found in water that is intended for human consumption. This information is in the public domain and can be found using any internet search engine.

It may well be found that at the flowrates suggested in the photograph in #17, that evaporation is not the most economic technique.

Please follow the recommendation in #18.

Good luck.

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#22
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Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 8:24 AM

thank you

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#23
In reply to #20

Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 8:34 AM

According to one set of published steam tables, the vapour pressure of saturated steam at 200degC is 14.52barg. Process equipment would therefore be designed typically to withstand pressures +50% on this, for burst insurance indemnity cover on the equipment.

The equipment is then sized on the basis of a combined mass and energy balance calculation. Flowrates are fundamental to these calculations.

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Re: evaporation and condensation of mercury rich polluted lake water

01/26/2017 12:04 AM
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#26

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/26/2017 3:10 PM

The answer to your problem might be found using and pondering through how this relates to one another

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#27

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/26/2017 4:46 PM

Try using activated carbon, follow up with sulfide treatment, followed by more activated carbon, followed up by oxygen-air saturation and standing for a week. You will want to sit down after that.

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#28

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/26/2017 7:21 PM

How about mercaptans followed by activated carbon?

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#29
In reply to #28

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/26/2017 10:07 PM

it's worth a try, never thought of thiols before.

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#33
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Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/27/2017 11:02 AM

At last a good use for broccoli.

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#32

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/27/2017 9:05 AM

In different studies, it was possible to determine that crushed egg shells are highly effective for decontaminating water with important levels of heavy metals. Mercury among them.

The technique is already being used in some northern countries with, so far, good results.

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#36
In reply to #32

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/27/2017 11:06 AM

I suspect that the membranes clinging to the eggshells has some major role to play in the adsorption of the toxic metals.

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#37
In reply to #36

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/29/2017 11:35 AM

It gives me an idea, that you should not eat egg shells on a meal. Some Japanese ramens incorporate egg shells to make the stock clearer.

Bioaccumulation could be a possible source of lead mercury contamination to chicken, secondly to drinking contaminated water with lead mercury.

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#51
In reply to #36

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

02/07/2017 2:50 PM

Do you have any links to some research papers regarding the usage of egg shells? That would be helpful.

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#52
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Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

02/08/2017 11:33 AM

try this one from NIH.gov

here is another example

You should do your own Google search also.

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#40

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/30/2017 4:38 PM

there is one more method not listed above. Mercury readily reacts with pure gold. Just pass all the water thru a filter with gold powder/mesh in it. The mercury can then be distilled from the gold and the gold can be reused. You can now sell the near pure mercury.

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#41
In reply to #40

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 5:06 AM

Given the size of the problem from the original poster's illustration above, that's an awful lot of gold powder!

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#42
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Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 6:40 AM

Not only the cost of that but also

-the energy required for the distillation

-the likelihood that the separation by distilling is not complete

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#43
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Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 8:39 AM

I totally agree with you (for once), and I would add that adsorption is the BAT for this.

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#44
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Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 9:46 AM

I wonder if baking soda works with mercury? Or probably some positively charged material to react with it. I don't know. It's pretty good research.

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#45

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 12:56 PM

A polymer made out of orange peel helps adsorb the mercury in water.

http://www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/new-material-made-orange-peel-could-remove-mercury-pollution-ocean.html

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#46

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 2:13 PM

Were the Mercury and other contaminant levels ever given? If not, we still don't know what level you have and what level you think it should be at (once treated).

When cleaning up one's yard, there is a huge difference in approach regarding whether one has to pick up a few small fallen branches or take down a few dead and rotting great oaks.

So saying, "I want to reduce the amount of wood in my yard to an acceptable level" doesn't mean anything in regards to what method and approach will be required to accomplish the task.

You follow yet?

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#47
In reply to #46

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

01/31/2017 6:41 PM

Post #9 gave some monitored levels, without mentioning the units, but if you regard the "optimum" levels as upper limits then the quantities of contaminating metals are horrendous.

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#48
In reply to #47

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

02/01/2017 11:20 AM

It appears to me that the data in post #9 seems to be in ppm (mg/L) for both mercury and lead as best as I can tell, however, I agree that the units were not mentioned.

The "desirable" range numbers to the right are somewhat a hint.

There is a problem with that much mercury in the water.

They should look at precipitation, holding time, then follow up with stringent filtration, contact with eggshells and AC filtration last step. What a damnable mess.

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#49
In reply to #48

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

02/02/2017 9:28 AM

According to table 2 of this paper, the "optimum level" of mercury in post #9 is then an order of magnitude too high. The lead values agree with each other, but I will still affirm that the wording should be "maximum tolerated" rather than "optimum". Neither lead nor mercury serves any useful purpose in the human body.

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#50
In reply to #49

Re: Evaporation and Condensation of Mercury Rich Polluted Lake Water

02/02/2017 10:53 AM

Yes, in the edumacated community, it almost goes without saying (more than once).

There are those, however, that have already played with too much mercury as children, to ever be under the toxic limit again.

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