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Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/29/2017 11:07 PM

Has anybody else thought about a shortage of sand as a global problem?

The world is running out of sand - Business Insider

The world is running out of sand — and you'd be surprised how ...

Construction is booming but fracking is also using sand as never before.

Industry experts estimate that each shale gas well requires approximately 5 million pounds of sand or other proppant for the hydraulic fracturing process.

Any thoughts on what can be used as a replacement for sand in both construction as well as fracking?

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#1

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 12:04 AM

Well maybe we could start building a wide and deep canal from the coast into the middle of the Sahara desert, then build an inland sea surrounded by desalination plants, this would provide sand, jobs for the indigenous peoples and crops to feed the hungry...

...float the sand down the canal with barges to the coast....

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#7
In reply to #1

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 11:20 AM

anyone who has driven the Hwy 10 or 40 in the Southwest is wondering how any ( sane) person would make such a crazed assertion.we have endless sand as well as endless lunacy!

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#8
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 11:52 AM

You have endless ignorance!

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#36
In reply to #8

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 12:52 PM

Every sand is precious.

Every sand is great.

If a sand is wasted,

God get quite irate......

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#17
In reply to #7

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 1:24 PM

Anytime there is a finite amount of anything and it is being used up on a steady basis then it is not endless.

As an alternate supply we could use all the sand in kids sandboxes?

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#25
In reply to #17

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 6:23 PM

I guess yall are too slow to understand my post. This is why I dropped out of this forum in the first place.

There are a lot of posers in this forum. Either contribute or switch to social media.

Thanks

Ron

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#20
In reply to #7

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 2:41 PM

Fracking sand, also called 'proppant', because it props open the cracks created by the hydraulic fracturing - AKA 'fracking', must be strong as well as not full of cracks.

Silica sand that has been classified as to size and density is good, you can also create a very strong proppant (for the highest pressure uses) from Al2O3 that is plasma melted and sprayed into a cooling column so it falls and sets into spherical shapes, which are then sieved for size and sold. The Al2O3 proppant costs more but it the only one for some tasks.

Most desert sand is not strong enough for the task, being assorted other erosion products.

http://www.claimpostresources.com/index.php If you are familiar with Hydraulic Fracturing or 'fraccing' They drill a vertical hole deep into an oil/gas structure that is solid rock with oil/gas trapped. Once they reach the right depth, they change the angle to follow the strata. This a hole with a steel casing. Once they get it finished they send down a mechanism that uses small explosives to punch hundreds of small holes through the steel. They then pump down the fraccing fluid, at very very high pressure. 10,000 psi or more. This actually fractures the rock and allows oil/gas to become mobile. These cracks will close once you stop the pressure - unless you also pump down some small silica sand particles in the fraccing fluid. These prop the cracks open - so they call it a 'proppant'. They come in types, silica, or saphire etc. Saphire is stronger but costs a lot more and is used in the highest pressure wells. The fine sand claim post has is screened and used. It is silica sand, strong enough for 75% of wells. Claim Post has a few good deposits, and the demand is strong. They just closed the purchase of a good source. I expect the price to reach 20 cents or more this year?? view a few of these https://www.google.ca/search?q=fracking+cartoon&source=lnms&tbm=vid&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiMop6Fza3WAhXCz4MKHQb6AWkQ_AUICygC&biw=1920&bih=950

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#22
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 3:04 PM

The problem is that once it is used in construction, and fracking, it's gone forever, just like the fracking water that is pumped back into the ground under extreme pressure that causes earthquakes.

The trolls can whine and cry "political agenda" all day and night, but that doesn't change the truth.

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#29
In reply to #22

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 11:39 PM

Yet here you are whining about trolls and you're the worst one on the forum.

'Crowd size' issues envy much?

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#74
In reply to #29

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 5:17 PM

How about pretending you have a spine? Ya know, fake it till you make it. If your comment is essentially just a personal attack, don't be so cowardly as to hide behind the 'anonymous user' mask.

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#2

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 2:18 AM

Don't worry. Within months, if not weeks, Secretary Zinke can reduce the size of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument, thereby freeing up a few months' supply of sand.

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#3
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 6:31 AM

If he's still around, that is. Those cabinet members all seem to have ethics problems.

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#4

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 6:51 AM

Its obvious that you are phishing since you dont like fracking and the sand issues are business politic related and not natural resource amount related.

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#6
In reply to #4

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 10:56 AM

Idiot! It's obvious you are trolling because you don't have anything but insults. That's OK.

Why not identify yourself so that the forum will know which coward you are.

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#9
In reply to #6

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 2:30 PM

okay. whatever, hypocrite.

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#5

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 8:23 AM

you could grind up Al gore's movie on global warming into nanosize bits of BS to stuff the cracks and hold them open.

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#10

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 2:47 PM

For those who have trouble with reading and comprehension, let me repeat the question:

"Any thoughts on what can be used as a replacement for sand in both construction as well as fracking?"

And another related topic, although there are some who deny greenhouse emissions, this is for the adults on the forum: Building Stronger Concrete with Sustainable Materials to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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#11

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

09/30/2017 11:34 PM

Perhaps a finer regrind of "grindings" would work. I just quickly Googled and Wiki'd it, didn't see the word. Maybe the industry came up with a better name, so I will explain;

Over 20 years ago now, I bought my first load of "grindings" from my friend and paving contractor. Hopefully y'all have seen the cool machine munching up the old road to level it then the new material is laid behind it. In the Mid-Atlantic, this was referred to as grindings. It was an awesome deal in the beginning, especially if you were on, or less distance, than the route they were headed with it. I laid it down on a poor part of the driveway and just running over it and a rake here and there... worked well. I'm sure it's still done, but I believe more as a favor thing because they have learned to recycle the stuff so well. But some stuff they probably can't reuse or perhaps the run is too long, but the point I'm making is that seems like the remoteness of your fracturing ties in with the negative side (distance) of "grindings".

My thought was having a machine that would take "qualifying grindings" like clean concrete and grind it on down to whatever size works best with that material, and bring it to the operation. You could add a step and containerize it. No one machine would grind anything that fine without starting with something already somewhat small and consistent, plus be portable in any regular sense. Portability is the factor that makes the $ part work, because we demolish a lot of stuff that's "in the middle of nowhere". A lot of littles add up, I just don't have any idea of what we should be putting in the ground, whereas I have a feeling it isn’t coming out.

My level of geo and bio engineering is very poor - but sometimes an ignorant (layman's) point of view can be a plus... I mean, you are fracking, right? And we have less history on that than I have knowledge of bad concrete, so I've never hushed for fear of being slapped down - kinda fun sometimes (especially if it's you know who...)

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#12
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 12:16 AM

Good thought. I don't know enough about recycling concrete, but I think the "grindings" aren't the same as virgin sand. Still that may be better than trucking sand from hundreds of miles away and they might replace virgin sand in more and more applications as the cost increases with reduced availability.

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#13

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 12:56 AM

Just some ideas and thoughts. Stick built houses are built on a concrete pad and concrete requires sand. Modular homes are supported on steel and plastic piers.

Maybe what is required is a new type of home construction.

One thing I've noticed is that after a tornado or hurricane, people say they are going to rebuild, but do they rebuild or create a new type of home, no, they build the house the same way and when the next tornado or hurricane arrives, the process is repeated.

As for the fracking, the lubricating sand combination that is injected in the ground may use a lot of sand and that sand is a natural resource, which although there is a drawback, it's got to be better than using a synthetic injection filler.

What was it that the red queen said about running faster in one spot ?

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#14

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 1:10 AM

..."Is sand the new gold?

In early Q1, the combined market capitalization of frac sand miners had reached $11 billion, pricing in an average Enterprise Value per ton of over $300 or over 15x replacement value.

An army of consultants, sell-side analysts, and speculators were confidently pointing to the exponential rise in demand for frac sand as rig counts and company budgets turned a corner, drilling activity was on the upswing, and proppant intensity was rising.

The frac sand industry’s cheerleaders were certain they could continue to outwit the laws of supply and demand.
Our field work identified an important shift from the use of northern white to abundant in basin brown sand. In addition to a large and growing number of greenfield projects that are creating new capacity, we uncovered significant overhang that has been sitting on the sidelines and is now being reactivated.

As sand pricing starts to decline in summer or fall at the latest as a consequence of the outsized supply we have seen, we expect many of the publicly-listed frac sand miners to end up with little if any equity value.

He doesn’t like much about these companies.

He finds valuations absurd, sand usage trends concerning, new supply robust and the end result being a bunch of bankruptcies."...

https://oilandgas-investments.com/2017/investing/frac-sand-stocks-are-going-to-zero-says-dan-loeb/

..."The majority of new supply in Texas is coming from new “in-basin” mines located between the Delaware and Midland basins. Frac sand produced from the in-basin mines is different from the typical “brown sand” that Texas has been known for. Frac sand produced from the in-basin mines is sourced from sand dunes rather than from formations beneath the Earth’s surface that require mining. Due to greater ease of access, and lower transportation costs created by not needing to ship anything by rail, NWS will not be able to compete with local sand from a pure cost perspective. As a result, the only scenario in which we foresee a shift back to NWS is one where quality or operational preference dictates the change. As yet, there is very little data to quantify the effect of usage of in-basin sands on well productivity, estimated ultimate recovery and initial production rates. Hence significant long-term adoption risks do exist in spite of frac sand suppliers investing heavily in in-basin supply capacity.

We expect Permian and Eagle Ford frac sand demand to total 33 million tons and 18 million tons, respectively, in 2018. Existing sand supply in Texas is estimated at 20 to 25 million tons. With an additional 60 million tons of new supply expected to come online from 2017 to 2018, the frac sand sector could be oversupplied, and not all new mines could find an easy market in 2018 and 2019."...

http://blog.ihs.com/how-brown-sand-supply-impacts-us-shale-plays

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#15
In reply to #14

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 4:15 AM

That solves the problem for the Permian Basin, maybe. "There is "little data to quantify the effect of usage of in-basin sands on well productivity, estimated ultimate recovery and initial production rates. Hence significant long-term adoption risks do exist in spite of frac sand suppliers investing heavily in in-basin supply capacity."

Now, what about the R.O.W.

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#16
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 10:42 AM

D.U.C.

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#18
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 1:51 PM

Don't have any idea what D.O.C. means, but ROW means the rest of the world, in case you didn't know.

And if any of the usual geniuses here had bothered to read The world is running out of sand - Business Insider

The world is running out of sand — and you'd be surprised how ...

The subject is the worldwide supply of sand, not what's in California or Texas.

So, as usual, almost every reply from the regular peanut gallery was mostly insultingly trivial and self serving.

No surprise there.

So, GFY!

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#19
In reply to #18

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 2:08 PM

Maybe you didn't read post #1. Take your political agenda and go.

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#21
In reply to #19

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 2:57 PM

I read post #1 and it was ludicrous! Even you could realize that, I think.

Worldwide construction is at an all time high. Fracking has grown astronomically over the last 10-20 years.

Pay attention here: THEY BOTH HAPPEN ALL OVER THE WORLD, IN EVER INCREASING AMOUNTS.

So, take your asinine trolling and disappear, along with the other asinine trolls who have infested what, to any REASONABLE person should have sounded like, "Has anybody else thought about a shortage of sand as a global problem"?

Only idiots would consider this a political agenda! We know where that puts you, don't we!

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#23
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 5:20 PM
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#26
In reply to #23

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 6:53 PM

Sahara Forest Project is interesting. Admirable even.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qattara_Depression_Project

But the canal project? "Calculations showed that digging a canal or tunnel would be too expensive. Bassler decided to use nuclear explosions to excavate the canal.

Because of the concerns about using a nuclear solution the Egyptian government turned down the plan,[12] and the project's stakeholders gave up on the project."

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#27
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 7:26 PM

..."The proposals call for a large canal or tunnel being excavated of about 55 to 80 kilometres (34 to 50 mi) depending on the route chosen to the Mediterranean Sea to bring seawater into the area.[2] Or otherwise a 320 kilometre (200 mile) pipeline north-east to the freshwater Nile River at Rosetta.[3][4] For comparison, the nearby Suez Canal is currently 193 kilometres in length.[5] By balancing the inflow and evaporation the lake level can be held constant. Several proposed lake levels are -70, -60, -50 and -20 m. Flooding the depression to -20 m would lower the height of the world ocean by 2.16 millimeters.[6]"...

Well they never took into account a booming market for the sand, possibly this would make a difference if the sand could be sold and also open up a huge sand source through the length of the canal....

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#28
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 8:31 PM

Another reclamation project in China, with a different approach....

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#33
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 12:19 AM

Yeah I was curious as to what exactly the mixture was....

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095809916311560

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#34
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 12:34 AM

So what you're saying is we are nowhere close to running out of sand.

(As if I don't know.)

Here in North Dakota our oil shale formations are pretty soft so normal natural sand has proven it's plenty hard enough to prop open a formation for while.

The problem here is the relative softness of oil shale makes it just pliable and soluble/erodible enough that when given time it will sort of mould itself or get eroded and then deposited around the sand particles and close off the fracture lines making it necessary to re fracc a well to keep it productive.

Or at least that's the common theory as to why our oil well will lose production after a number of years. They seem to have a tendency to close themselves off by one physical method or another.

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#24
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 6:15 PM

In the UK we take a lot of construction sand off the beach. It does not need to be hard sand and the oceans are grinding up a renewable supply. The UK West coast is extending into the sea as new sand is deposited onto the beaches while our East coast is eroding at the rate of a few meters per year. As a result getting a permit to extract sand from a beach on the East coast is almost impossible but West coast extraction permits are handed out like toffees in a sweet shop. Given that at it's widest there is no more than 300 miles from west coast to east coast this does not cause severe logistics problems.

Hard silica sand is mined inland from extensive sand beds that lie just below the surface soil. At present it is mostly used for glass (39%), foundry casting (11%), other industrial uses including fracking (24%), horticulture and leisure (26%) The normal extraction technique is to strip off the top soil, excavate the 2-3 meter thick sand bed, then reinstate the top soil. Full reinstatement with no loss of crop yield is usually a condition of the extraction permit. Farmers/land owners are compensated for loss of crop revenue for the 1 or 2 years it takes to strip a field. Fracking has not taken off in the UK yet so the market for silica sand is set to increase.

The economics of the two extraction methods make silica sand more expensive than construction sand so silica is never used for construction. In the UK construction uses about 10-12 times the whole silica output. Grouping the two types of sand together and claiming that there is a shortage of "sand" shows the author is uneducated about the various grades of sand and it's uses. If in other parts of the world silica sand is being used in construction, finding alternatives for soft sand to use in construction like ground up millstone, gritstone, sandstone, limestone and reserving the silica for premium uses would go a long way to addressing shortages.

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#37
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 5:16 PM

We all know who you are and why you were kicked off this forum. What we don't know is how you managed to bribe your way back on. Look at your post #10. It's laced with insults for anyone who doesn't think like you do. All you can do is name call when things don't go your way. That makes you the troll for any intelligent person.

BTW, you blame fracking for earthquakes, so I think you would be thrilled if the lack of sand brought it to a stop. But that's not why you made this thread, is it?

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#38
In reply to #37

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 5:36 PM

I didn't get kicked off of the forum. I decided to take a break from trolls like you.

This thread posed a legitimate question. It was perverted by trolls.

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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 11:49 PM

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#32
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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 12:03 AM

He won't quit because in his tiny closed mind everyone but him is the problem.

It's what liberal trolls do since they have no shame or dignity like a normal person has to use against them.

Read up on Dissociative Disorder if you want to know how he thinks and why he feels you're to blame for his delusional ignorance and childish unprofessional behavior.

Everything he doesn't like in his increasingly narrow minded views of world is everyone else's fault but his. Heck, everytime he poops his pants in public that's someone else is at fault too.

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Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/02/2017 11:38 AM

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#39
In reply to #35

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 1:15 AM

Really? Dozens of people get shot and this is how you respond to it by using it as an excuse to harass me over it. You really are a pathetic piece of human crap.

I hope this is what gets you thrown out of this forum for good.

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#40
In reply to #39

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 1:25 AM

I'm just trying to help you solve a problem.

You seem to have become more tense since the parting.

I wish you well.

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#41
In reply to #40

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 3:14 AM

Seriously what sort of sick in the head half wit idiot posts the stupid crap you did regarding a mass shooting then goes on to claim that it's the person they are harassing who has the mental issues as if they're the good guy and or even the real victim? Are you really that arrogantly stupid?

What's worse is, I and others have called you out multiple times in the last few weeks for being mentally imbalanced due to your bizarre childish cowardly trolling behavior and now you're hypocritically playing that card as if you have the first clue about mental health of any sorts.

Do you not remember I an other calling you out for the exact same things you're saying now? I'm pretty sure most everyone else here does.

It happens week after week. Someone calls out for some new stupidity of yours then a week or two later you pick it up and start throwing it around as if it's your idea and I now rather expect ien week or two you're going to take this and try and recycle it while claiming it's yours too and the fail at it as well.

The only game cards you have that are truly your own is your failing to prove your half as smart as you think you are, failing to be original all while recycling something someone else brought up against and running a way like a coward when either of those two blows up in your face, just like every time you have posted a link (you thought was real and supported your views and claims) only to have it prove just how absurdly and arrogantly dumb you are.

Also, quit sending me your sick harassment PM's. I can't block you but I can delete whatever crap you send. I also know damn well you have been doing it to others as well whenever one of your idiot trolling games blows up on your face and you need some to blame besides yourself for it having happened but can't use the profanity and sick baseless accusations you're so smugly proud of publicly.

I deleted your last one without reading it under the advisement of others. The two before that have been reported for being harassment since you have to have some sick obsession with my Ex wife and my pets.

Now if you really honestly want to make the forum better leave like you did before and don't come back. Life was civilized and respectful here the whole time you were gone. So much so there were even several threads made up just for commenting on it.

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#42
In reply to #41

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 12:48 PM

DON'T MAKE ME COME BACK THERE YOU TWO!!!

YOU'LL BE SORRY IF YOU MAKE ME COME BACK THERE!!!!

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#31

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/01/2017 11:53 PM

Phishing for excuses to troll again I see.

You hate fraccing and know full well I worked in the field so why exactly should anyone take your views and concerns and seriously to be anything but trolling?

Especially given the absurdity of your claims and links given?

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#43

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 1:09 PM

Where I am, they are putting glass into landfill by the truckload. Could this be ground to the required size and used?

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#44
In reply to #43

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 1:23 PM

One doesn't normally consider sand as a finite resource. But, when demand outpaces supply we see shortages and economic penalties when suitable substitutes are not available.

Waste glass powder as partial replacement of cement for sustainable ...

Milling of glass to micro-meter scale particle size, for enhancing the reactions between glass and cement hydrates, can bring major energy, environmental and economic benefits when cement is partially replaced with milled waste glass for production of concrete (Rashed, 2014).

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#45

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 5:03 PM

There was an interesting article in the New Yorker a few months back about the technology of sand.

Interesting point - Saudi Arabia has the wrong kind of sand for building products. The typical beach sand is wrong also. You really have to be particular for what kind of sand is needed in all the end uses. Geometry factors a lot and some chemistry.

There is a worldwide shortage for the kind of sand used in building.

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#46

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 7:47 PM

How many different types of sand are there? Nobody knows an answer to this seemingly simple question because there are no such thing as an official sand classification. However, sand is a highly variable substance and therefore it is definitely possible to make an attempt to classify it into separate categories.


Nine sand samples above represent nine different sand types. Row by row from left to right: 1. Glass sand from Kauai, Hawaii 2. Dune sand from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia 3. Quartz sand with green glauconite from Estonia 4. Volcanic sand with reddish weathered basalt from Maui, Hawaii 5. Biogenic coral sand from Molokai, Hawaii 6. Coral pink sand dunes from Utah 7. Volcanic glass sand from California 8. Garnet sand from Emerald Creek, Idaho 9. Olivine sand from Papakolea, Hawaii.

Coral sand

“Coral sand” has several meanings. Find out what it really is.

Volcanic ash

Volcanic ash is a fine mixture of minerals and rock fragments thrown out of a volcano during exposive volcanic eruption.

Glass sand

Traces of human activity are visible almost everywhere. Even sand may sometimes contain artificial fragments in quantities that justify the creation of a separate sand type.

Immature sand

Sand composed of the same minerals that made up its parent rocks.

Gypsum sand

A rare sand type composed of gypsum grains.

Ooid sand

Ooids are rounded pellets formed in a shallow wave agitated water.

Silica sand

Silica sand is almost pure quartz.

Black sand

There are two types of black sand.

Greensand

Greensand and green sand. What is the difference?

Desert sand

What are the characteristic features of dune sand?

Lithic sand

Sometimes sand is composed of tiny rocks.

Mixed carbonate-silicate sand

Some sand samples are mixture of organic and inorganic sand grains.

Biogenic sand

Sand may be composed entirely of tiny skeletons — sea shells, corals, forams, etc.

Garnet sand

Garnet is a common mineral in sand but sometimes it forms the majority of it.

Olivine sand

Olivine is very unstable in the weathering environment. Still, it is surprisingly common sand mineral in some regions and sometimes makes up major part of the sand.

Volcanic sand

Volcanically active regions have their own unique type of generally dark-colored sand with a characteristic mineral assemblage.

Heavy mineral sand

Heavy minerals are present in most sand types. However, they rarely make up more than few percent of it. Sometimes heavy minerals get concentrated enough to form heavy and usually very beautiful sand.

Sands with hematitic pigment

Hematite is the mineral that gives reddish color to desert sands and sandstone formations all over the world.

Continental sand

The name says it all. This sand is common weathering product of the continental landmasses.

Quartz sand

Quartz is the most common sand forming mineral. This sand type consists little else than this mineral.

http://www.sandatlas.org/sand-types/

What is Frac Sand?

This special sand is one of the keys to producing oil and natural gas from tight shale formations

Frac sand: Close-up view of frac sand (on the right) and a typical sand of similar grain size (on the left). Notice how the frac sand has a more uniform grain size, nicely rounded grain shapes, and a uniform composition. It is also a very tough material that can resist compressive forces of up to several tons per square inch. Grains in this image are about 0.50 millimeter in size. Photo © iStockphoto / BanksPhotos.

"Frac sand" is a high-purity quartz sand with very durable and very round grains. It is a crush-resistant material produced for use by the petroleum industry. It is used in the hydraulic fracturing process (known as "fracking") to produce petroleum fluids, such as oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids from rock units that lack adequate pore space for these fluids to flow to a well. Most frac sand is a natural material made from high-purity sandstone. An alternative product is ceramic beads made from sintered bauxite or small metal beads made from aluminum.

http://geology.com/articles/frac-sand/

Assessment of High Purity Quartz Resources - Springer

http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783642221606-c2.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-1330453-p174129663

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#65
In reply to #46

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 7:42 PM

Solar : when I read your post, I said to myself, this guy sure knows a lot about sand.

I wonder if he is a " Sand Man " ?

My question is thus : What kind of magical sand does a Sand Man use to sprinkle into the eyes of sleeping people to give them good dreams at night ?

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#66
In reply to #65

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 10:13 PM

Sand in eyes, no good....eye drops good...

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#47

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 10:52 PM

OK, people, listen up! The word is FRACCING, F-R-A-C-C-I-N-G, not fracking. There is no 'K' in fracturing, and there is no 'K' in fraccing. Sorry if you don't like it, but that's the way it's been in the industry since it was invented in 1947. And I've been in the industry in the Permian Basin for the last 40 years + or -.

There is no shortage of frac sand, either. In fact, a sand company recently acquired the Kermit sand dunes (near Kermit, Texas) to mine sand, much to the consternation of locals that have enjoyed playing in the dunes for decades. They are now closed for public access. The company (sorry, can't remember the name), says that the top layer of sand is not viable for fraccing, but they can dig down and find top quality sand. They estimate they can mine about 30 BILLION tons of sand from this one source.

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#48
In reply to #47

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 11:05 PM

There is no second "c" in "fracturing", either.

Furthermore, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary specifically includes the term "fracking".

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#49
In reply to #47

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/03/2017 11:24 PM

Can you provide any substantiating background for your claims?

Some members are sticklers for documents and eschew opinions without verification.

Hydraulic fracturing - Wikipedia

Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. ( Bold words are from the web site, not me)

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#51
In reply to #49

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 10:13 AM

Wikipedia is well known for establishing fact based on consensus rather than truth.

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#52
In reply to #51

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 11:29 AM

Please cite an example to substantiate this claim.....

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#54
In reply to #52

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 1:02 PM

https://tech.slashdot.org/story/08/10/21/1657256/wikipedias-new-definition-of-truth

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#58
In reply to #54

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 5:13 PM

That's not an example, that's an opinion.... and I also could add it's from 10 years ago....So not only is it just an opinion, it's not even a current opinion....

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#59
In reply to #58

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 5:49 PM

You might also read the Wikipedia entry for Wikipedia Reliability especially the sections on librarian skepticism and noted inaccuracies.

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#61
In reply to #59

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 6:06 PM

All looks good to me....

..."A 2006 review of Wikipedia by Library Journal, using a panel of librarians, "the toughest critics of reference materials, whatever their format", asked "long standing reviewers" to evaluate three areas of Wikipedia (popular culture, current affairs, and science), and concluded: "While there are still reasons to proceed with caution when using a resource that takes pride in limited professional management, many encouraging signs suggest that (at least for now) Wikipedia may be granted the librarian's seal of approval""...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliability_of_Wikipedia

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#62
In reply to #61

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 6:21 PM

Good cherry-picking from the article.

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#67
In reply to #62

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 10:17 PM

So you can't give me an example of an untruthful Wikipedia page?? That's what I thought.....

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#75
In reply to #67

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 5:36 PM

In the first example, the individual attempted to get Wikipedia to correct his line of work, which they got wrong.

In Wikipedia's article on their own reliability, they had a long section on mistakes they have made with the caveat that everyone else makes mistakes too.

There was also a long section on bias entering the editing. Is it that you don't consider Wikipedia's own article to be reliable?

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#76
In reply to #75

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 5:42 PM

Those are all truthful statements....except the last, because I do consider Wikipedia to be as reliable as any other reliable source...and that's as truthful as it gets.....

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#53
In reply to #51

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 11:47 AM

The English language evolves based on usage, fracking seems to be a more common term among those of us who don't work in the oil fields.

Does that make it wrong?

Fracking, fracing or fraccing? — High Country News

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#55
In reply to #53

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 1:14 PM

I thought it was from Battlestar Galactica.

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#56
In reply to #55

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 1:23 PM

Arguing over the spelling of a name seems rather trivial.

Spell it however you want. We'll all recognize the generally accepted definition of the term in question, not that it matters.

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#57
In reply to #56

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 1:25 PM

Absolutely pointless to argue. I agree, However, it is such great entertainment.

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#60
In reply to #55

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 5:55 PM

Battlestar Galactica?

What is a Battlestar Galactica?

I searched (not usin Wiki as a source www.imdb.com/title/tt0076984/) and discovered that is a

Battlestar Galactica (TV Series 1978–1979) - IMDb!

I'm happy to say that, somehow, this TV show never saw any eye time in my house.

Now, I'm sure you must have misspoken about this. A TV show is your source?

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#63
In reply to #60

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 6:22 PM

Cultural illiteracy raises it's shrouded head in agony......

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#64
In reply to #63

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 6:29 PM

And simple illiteracy raises its head. (Not it's.)

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#68
In reply to #64

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 10:24 PM

uh,,, that would be punctuation.....

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#73
In reply to #64

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 10:42 AM

True. An apostrophe wasted....the horror. Eight (or is it 32, or horror of horrors, 64) bits of binary data flushed down the crapper in the prime of their youth. Oh, the digitallity...

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#69
In reply to #63

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 11:01 PM

If never having seen a particular TV show is cultural illiteracy, then I'm happily guilty!

It it unseemly for you to accuse someone on an engineering forum of cultural illiteracy for being unfamiliar with a TV program. The grammatical deficiency of your statement speaks volumes, as already pointed out.

Newton Minow said it best, "American commercial television programming as a vast wasteland." This is truer today than ever before with most "news" programming being propaganda.

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#70
In reply to #60

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 9:08 AM

Maybe this explains his source of the word, " Frak " . Also it may provide insight into the psychological make-up of an individual and or that which drives a narrative.

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#72
In reply to #70

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 10:36 AM

"...Still crazy after all these years...."

But only when it makes sense.

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#71
In reply to #60

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/05/2017 10:34 AM

Fracing, fraccing, fracking...... To-may-toes, To-mah-toes, po-tay-toes, po-tah-toes, spuds. We know what is meant.

Just remember, better communications leads to mutual understanding which inevitably leads to more and bloodier wars.

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#77
In reply to #60

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/06/2017 7:10 PM

That original Battlestar Galactica isn't worth watching IMO. The 2004 remake is pretty entertaining....far better than the original.

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#50
In reply to #47

Re: Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Little Sand? I've Got a Well to Frack

10/04/2017 12:41 AM

We've already established that there is no shortage in Texas, see #14....

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