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Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/23/2022 12:36 AM

This looks promising as an energy storage method, and non carbon based fuel...

...."Beyond its use in the fertiliser and chemical industries1, ammonia is currently seen as a potential replacement for carbon-based fuels and as a carrier for worldwide transportation of renewable energy2.

Implementation of this vision requires transformation of the existing fossil fuel based technology for NH3 production3 to a simpler, scale-flexible technology, such as the electrochemical lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction reaction (Li-NRR)3,4.

This provides a genuine pathway from N2 to ammonia, yet is hampered by limited yield rates and efficiencies4-12.

Here we investigate the role of the electrolyte in this reaction and present a high-efficiency, robust process enabled by compact ionic layering in the electrode-electrolyte interfacial region.

The interface is generated by a high-concentration imide-based lithium salt electrolyte, enabling stabilised ammonia yield rates of 150±20 nmol s-1 cm-2 and current-to-ammonia efficiency closely approaching 100%.

The ionic assembly formed at the electrode surface suppresses electrolyte decomposition and supports stable N2 reduction.

Our study highlights the interrelation between the performance of the Li-NRR and the physicochemical properties of the electrode-electrolyte interface.

We anticipate that these findings will guide the development of a robust, high-performance process for sustainable ammonia production."....

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-05108-y

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#1

Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 6:13 AM

It would be great if this process could be reversible..a great chemical means of electrical energy storage.

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#2
In reply to #1

Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 12:04 PM

IHI Becomes World’s First to Attain 70% Liquid Ammonia Co-Firing Ratio on 2,000-Kilowatt-Class Gas Turbine

https://www.ihi.co.jp/en/all_news/2020/resources_energy_environment/1197060_2032.html

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#3
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Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 12:30 PM
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#4
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Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 1:23 PM

I have experience with ammonia compressors and refrigeration.The main problems were maintaining good seals and the fact that it is explosive at above a 25% NH3 to air ratio.That was over 30 years ago,and I am sure they have the seal problems solved by now.

I hope this technology works out.

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#5
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Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 4:39 PM

Maybe they could add a little ethanol into the fuel mix to improve combustion characteristics....or perhaps nitrous oxide?....you've already got the oxygen from the hydrogen production....maybe pure oxygen, that certainly would raise the temp a bit....I guess NOx emissions are the enemy...

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#8
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Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 11:54 PM

Some of that "information" is questionable. For quite a long time, the explosive limits of ammonia were considered to be 16-25% in air. Note the difference of 9%. Some later "revisions" have made these be 15.5-25.5%, a difference of 10%, which pushes ammonia into a "highly explosive" region. That may be bureaucratic overreach.

I have over 45 years of ammonia experience, and while there have been occasional issues with shaft seals for compressors and recirculating pumps, they have been nowhere as numerous or problematical as you imply.

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#9
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Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/25/2022 3:54 AM

I would like to know what the ammonia concentrations corresponding to the explosion limits are. Along with that the temperatures of the ammonia vapours explosiveness with the ammonia concentrations.

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#10
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Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/26/2022 3:12 AM

Figure 4. Explosion temperature ranges for different concentrations.

Figure 5. Ammonia concentrations corresponding to the explosion limits

"In this article, it was shown that the explosion characteristics and flammability limits of various aqueous ammonia vapours in air are measurable at atmospheric pressure and at various temperatures using a 20-L explosion sphere.

Atmospheres above ammonia solutions consist of gaseous ammonia, air and water vapour, in concentrations depending on working temperatures. Both water vapour and ammonia concentrations increase with temperature but as ammonia and water react together in solution to form ammonium hydroxide ions, partial pressures do not fit with saturated vapour curves of each component.

As for the working temperature ranges, LEL and UEL, we can conclude that:

  1. The lower oxygen concentration of ammonia in water vapours is 15%.
  2. Temperature ranges for which ammonia vapours are explosive in air increase with decreasing ammonia concentration in solutions. For example, ammonia vapours from the 28% solution in air form an explosive atmosphere between 270 K and 282 K, whereas it is between 309 K and 320 K for a 10% ammonia solution.
  3. At low temperatures, the explosion range corresponds to the one of gaseous ammonia in air (between 15 and 28% v/v) because of the low and insignificant water vapour content. The explosion range shortens while temperature increases by decreasing the UEL, whereas the LEL remains nearly constant.
  4. The limiting concentration of ammonia in aqueous ammonia solutions below which vapours are not flammable is 5% regardless of the working temperature.
  5. Explosion violence (pmax and (dp/dt) max) values are low for pure gaseous ammonia in air. However, the maximum explosion pressure is still above 3 bars with the 10% solution. Hence, these aqueous solutions can cause severe damages, if ignited, in case they are handled in closed spaces."

https://ammoniaknowhow.com/explosion-characteristics-and-flammability-limits-of-various-aqueous-ammonia-vapours-in-air/

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#6

Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 9:20 PM

As a battery, possible… as a fuel the calorific value of ammonia isn’t that high.

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#7
In reply to #6

Re: Non carbon based Production of Ammonia

07/24/2022 10:04 PM

Though the btu content is about half of traditional carbon based fuels, it only costs about half as much to produce...so it's a wash...with carbon elimination as a bonus...

https://www.ammoniaenergy.org/articles/arpa-es-vision-for-carbon-neutral-liquid-fuels/

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