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Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 4:24 PM

We are having a similar problem in Orlando, Fl. It started with the carpets feeling moist and when we removed them and put linoleum tiles they would curl up. We finally removed everything and let the concrete floor and it is constantly wet. before all of this, we had been having problems with leaking pipes and eventually repiped the house through the attic. So we know they are not leaking pipes. The humidity in the house contributed to mold so I called the insurance company. They came and sent a leak detection company that said we had no leaks and an engineer who said that he suspects that the water is coming up from the slab. The insurance company said that our insurance policy does not cover water coming from under the slab so there was nothing more that they could do. We were told to remove the drywall from the bottom up to 4 feet to remove the mold and that is what we have done. We are now living in a home without inside walls (just the frame) without cabinets, and with cement floors. Nobody seems to be able to tell us what the problem is so that we can fix it ans start rebuilding our home. Any ideas?

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#1

Re: Water under slab foundation pushing up into home

06/03/2015 4:47 PM

Your issue could be a few things:

  1. How long ago was the house re-piped?
  2. How long was the under slab piping leaking that you know of?
  3. What is the depth of the water table on your property?
  4. You may need to put down a water and vapor barrier down over your entire slab?
  5. Install leaching drains around your house approx 2' to 3' deep all the way around and install sump pumps? test it by digging a hole 3' deep about 3' from your house in what you determine to be the "wettest" area. Inspect the hole every few hours and see if you have any leach water? the soil you remove from that hole will tell you a bit about the moisture content of the surrounding soil.
  6. You are dealing with a wet slab and need to get the water away from your house.
  7. Do you have construction experience? If you do, you have a bit of work ahead of you. If not, you have a lot of expense ahead of you?
  8. I would let the slab dry out as long as possible. Maybe several months?
  9. If you have automatic sprinklers in your yard, turn them off to help dry the soil around your house.
  10. In your post you said you had a leak specialist out to check if there were still leaks under your slab. They said "no". Just keep a watch on your water meter. Make sure all the water is off in the house and look at your meter, if the triangle pointer is turning, even ever so slightly, you still have a leak!

Good luck
Bryan

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#25
In reply to #1

Re: Water under slab foundation pushing up into home

06/04/2015 12:22 PM

Excellent answer (or should I say response). GA. The only thing I would add is to run de-humidifiers for a while if the A/C is not running enough to pull down the humidity. My bets are on a very high water table. Also make sure that if you have gutters, that the outlets are as far away from the house as you can (practically) get them.

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#26
In reply to #25

Re: Water under slab foundation pushing up into home

06/04/2015 12:50 PM

OP wrote a report he received covers everything written.

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#2

Re: Water under slab foundation pushing up into home

06/03/2015 4:51 PM

AHhh the joys of home ownership...Well the first thing to do is seal the house and turn the A/C on as low as it goes and rent or borrow some dehumidifiers and leave for a few days, let the slab dry out....It sounds like your moisture barrier beneath the slab has trapped the water in the slab, so it must be dried out....then you'll have to see if it reoccurs and further landscape draining or slab jacking or some other further measures are needed....

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#3

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 5:02 PM

Some detail please. (Geology , soil type , contours , slopes , space around the house).

Are you close to a lake or swamps?

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#4

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 5:03 PM

Sounds like you'll need professional help.

Estimating the normal Seasonal High Groundwater Table.

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#5

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 5:18 PM

It sounds as though:

  • The house hasn't been designed properly, and/or
  • The house hasn't been constructed properly, and/or
  • The house has not been maintained properly.

In the UK, the Building Regulations part of the Local Authority's activity ensures that an appropriate review takes place at intervals to ensure compliance, which knocks out the first two.

Does Florida have 'cowboy builders', perhaps?

It would be worth knowing the detail of the design, construction and maintenance activities that have lead to the current issue.

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#8
In reply to #5

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 6:11 PM

Cowboy builders? Florida has strict building codes, as we are in hurricane territory....

http://codes.iccsafe.org/app/book/toc/2014/Florida/Building%20Code/index.html

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#6

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 5:52 PM

We are having a similar problem in Orlando, Fl. Similar to what problem? Within the city limits of Orlando FL?
It started with the carpets feeling moist and when we removed them and put linoleum tiles they would curl up. When did this start… six years ago, three months? When carpet was removed, what was observed condition of the slab?
before all of this, we had been having problems with leaking pipes and eventually repiped the house through the attic. So, how much time elapsed between these issues?
So we know they are not leaking pipes. No, we really don't know that. Incompetent inspectors miss all sorts of things.
The humidity in the house contributed to mold so I called the insurance company. Did you order an actual inspection and test done for the presence of mold? Results of this test?
They came and sent a leak detection company that said we had no leaks and an engineer who said that he suspects that the water is coming up from the slab. This engineer's suspicion… do you have a written report to this effect?
The insurance company said that our insurance policy does not cover water coming from under the slab… Have you reviewed your policy to confirm this premature denial is even valid?
We were told to remove the drywall from the bottom up to 4 feet to remove the mold and that is what we have done. Oh boy You were told - by whom?

Where is the floor level compared to the ground outside? That is to ask, is the troublesome floor about four feet lower than the ground outside, or maybe two feet higher, or… what?

Are any of the neighbors having the same or similar troubles?

Do you have a garage, or paved driveway? Is a similar set of symptoms visible there? Sidewalk, maybe?

How old is the house? And lastly... what color is the house? Hoping it isn't yellow, we see quite a few trouble with yellow houses in Orlando.

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#7
In reply to #6

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 6:10 PM

I have the engineer's report. How can I get it to you for your review? Let me know.

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#9
In reply to #7

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 6:19 PM

Do you have a scanner? scan it in and save it to file, then you can post it here...If not take picture with your phone and save it to file and then post it...make sure it's large enough to read....you may have to enlarge the file...

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#10

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 6:59 PM

Ideas?

Your slab was poured without a vapor barrier. (Heavy plastic sheet)

During the next heavy rain walk the perimeter and look for any area water is running towards your home. Grade those areas sharply away from your home if possible.

If there is a side of your home that is below grade install a French drain set up (plastic bosses with holes) to collect and divert storm rain.

Get an SDS max drill from harbor freight and drill 1" holes in your floor to asses ground moisture under the slab in different area's. Try to suck water up through a drinking straw. If wet... Try a shop vac.

If you I'd a really wet area. Drill out a small ring of concrete and investigate. Hopefully you can remedy the issue externally. Try to drain and dry. If needed a sump discharge away from the home could help a lot.

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#11

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 7:34 PM

You might talk with one of the local water authority crews and get them to do an informal test on the water.

We often do tests for customers to verify whether the water is from our network or if it's groundwater.

We use fluoride, so verification is fairly simple and we can also determine whether dilution is also happening. (We dose at 1 unit, so if sample has 1, it's totally service water, if it's 0.5 then it's diluted, if it's <0.2 it might be groundwater.) The test is simple and inexpensive (unless it's a formal lab request).

Your local supplier would have some similar means to check for groundwater. This test will assist to understand if it's a leak. (The "watch the meter" test is also simple and VERY effective.)

If it's as bad as you describe, then I'd think cut through slab and create subfloor sump with de-watering pump, since that hydraulic pressure underneath the slab could "float" the house with spectacular results.

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#12

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 7:42 PM

Had this problem once with a concrete slab in factory work shop. The problem was when they lay-ed the foundations for the surrounding walls they did not allow for drainage of water (rain?), that finds its way in and accumulates under the concrete slab.

Regards JD.

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#13

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 10:52 PM

Mold Colonization Cause and Origin Assessment

&

Mold Remediation Protocol

Project ID: M15031306

Rivera Residence

Tower Hill Preferred Claim # 2800148876

Prepared for:

Kevin Martin

Tower Hill Claims Service

PO Box 142230

Gainesville, FL 32614

Inspection Date:

March 13, 2015

Prepared by:

www.AirSpecIAQ.com

1-800-643-2973

1

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Executive Summary

Homeowners Opening Statement, Key Findings, Cause and Origin with Timeline, Types of Loss - Structure and Contents, Mold Growth, and Recommendations

3.0 Supporting Evidence

A) Findings and Photographs

B) Mold Spore Sampling

C) Affected Areas & Dimensions

4.0 Limitations

5.0 Laboratory Sample Analysis Results

6.0 Mold Remediation Protocol

A) Scope of Work

B) Occupancy During Remediation

C) Project Schedule

D) Environmental Monitoring

E) Preliminary Health & Safety Measures

F) Cleaning and Decontamination Procedures and Requirements

G) General Instructions

H) Protocol References

7.0 Supporting Documents and Information

2

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

1.0

Introduction

Scott Tracy of ServPro-Apopka/Wekiva requested AirSpec to conduct a water damage cause and origin assessment of the Rivera Residence, (hereafter referred to as the residence). Mike Steepy, CIH, CSP, CIEC conducted this assessment on March 13, 2015. AirSpec obtained authorization from Kevin Martin, adjuster for Tower Hill Claims Service, to conduct and bill our services under Claim # 2800148876.

Mr. Steepy is a Certified Industrial Hygienist (abih.org), Certified Safety Professional (bcsp.org), Certified Indoor Environmental Consultant (acac.org), Florida Certified Residential Contractor (CRC1328072), and a Florida Licensed Mold Assessor (MRSA76). Mr. Steepy has been in the environmental hygiene field for over 25 years.

AirSpec's objective was to determine the cause and origin of the reported water and/or mold damage inside the residence by using scientific instruments, knowledge of building systems, forensic techniques, deductive logic, and mold spore sampling (air and/or surface). Furthermore, AirSpec designed an effective remediation protocol, if necessary.

After the assessment, AirSpec forwarded all mold spore samples to INX Laboratories in Clermont, FL. INX Laboratories participates in the American Industrial Hygiene Associations' (AIHA) Environmental Microbiology Proficiency Analytical Testing Program (EMPAT #151568). In addition, INX participates in the AIHA Fungal Direct Exam. Both programs test the accuracy of microbiological analysis. INX consistently ranks in the 90th percentile nationwide.

3

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

2.0

Executive Summary

The Rivera residence is a one-story, single family, concrete block and stucco residence built on a mono-slab foundation with an asphalt shingle roof. According to the Orange County Property Appraiser, this residence was built in 1989 and has 2,060 ft.² under roof.

The homeowners were present at the subject residence during this assessment.

Homeowner's Opening Statement

This residence was purchased new in 1989. The homeowners had noticed water stains on the garage floor for some time. A leak detection company was unable to find any water leaks. The homeowners had the supply pipes plumbed into the attic. A new HVAC system was installed in 2014.

The homeowners noticed the carpets were damp in July of 2014. Mrs. Rivera removed the carpet and installed ceramic tile. The tile started to come up and water was found on the slab. Occasionally, while moving furniture, puddles were found on the floor. Recently they found mold on the master bedroom ceiling near the perimeter walls and mold growth was found on their contents.

Key Findings

• There is a mold-like odor inside the residence. This finding indicates active mold growth.

4

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

• There are two dehumidifiers present inside the residence. These units were placed by ServPro of Apopka/Wekiva.

• Efflorescence is occurring on the exposed concrete slab. Efflorescence is a crystaline deposit on surfaces of masonry, stucco or concrete. It is whitish in appearance. Efflorescence is water-soluble salts that come from many possible sources. There must be water present to dissolve and transport the salts. Groundwater is often a source of efflorescence. For water to carry or move the salts to the surface there must be channels through which to move and migrate. The more dense the material, whether it be brick, stone, stucco or concrete, the more difficult for the water to transport salts to the surface. Conversely, the more porous the material, the greater the ease with which salts are transported and deposited. When the salt bearing water reaches the surface of a structure, the water evaporates and deposits the salt. When humidity is low, the water may evaporate before reaching the surface of the structure, leaving the salt deposit beneath the surface, and unseen. When the humidity is high, water evaporation is slower allowing more opportunity for salt deposits.

• A Tramex concrete moisture meter was used to determine if there is an elevation of moisture in the concrete slab. There was a strong correlation between the locations of efflorescence and the moisture elevated areas of the concrete slab.

• Visible mold growth is present on the master bedroom ceiling at the wall interface. The mold growth pattern indicates an exposure to elevated relative humidity and condensation at the wall/ceiling corners.

• Mold colonization was found on contents throughout the residence. The pattern of the mold growth indicates an exposure to elevated relative humidity. Sampling of various items in the residence confirms the presence of Aspergillus/Penicillium-like mold growth. Elevated relative humidity increases the water activity of surfaces. This increased water activity facilitates xerophilic mold colonization. Xerophiles are organisms that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water, also known as water activity. Water activity (aw) is a measure of the amount of water within a substrate an organism can use to support growth. Xerophiles are often said to be "xerotolerant", meaning tolerant of dry conditions. They can survive in environments with water activity below 0.8. When the surface and the air are in equilibrium, this equates to a relative humidity of 80%. Surface samples collected from contents inside the residence confirmed the growth of Aspergillus/Penicillium mold spp. These mold species are xerophillic molds that grow as a result of elevated relative humidity.

• The garage ceiling drywall is sagging downward. The cause of this damage is poor workmanship. Ceiling drywall 2 x 4 nailers were missing along the perimeter walls. In many places, the ceiling was secured at the trusses only. The absence of an attachment point along the perimeter walls and the naturally occurring elevated relative humidity inside the garage has caused the ceiling to sag.

5

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

• AirSpec investigated the slab and exterior grading differential. The slab height is approximately 4 inches above grade. This differential in slab height vs. grading should prevent rising groundwater from infiltrating into the residence. Rising groundwater from the exterior walls in not suspected.

• The relative humidity was measured at 45% at the time of this inspection. Dewpoint 54oF. It should be noted that two dehumidifiers were operating at the time of this assessment. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55-2004 titled, "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy", specifies the combinations of indoor space environment and personal factors that will produce thermal comfort conditions acceptable to 80% or more of the occupants within a space. The following temperatures are recommended: 71 to 78º F degrees during the winter and 76-82º F degrees in the summer. The standard also recommends that relative humidity be maintained between 30 and 60 percent.

Humidity levels below 60% will control mold growth. Humidity levels below 50% will control dust mites.

• AirSpec conducted a limited evaluation of the HVAC system. The air handler is a Model FY4ANF036 manufactured by CAC/BDP; a nominal 3 ton system that conditions approximately 1,500 square feet. Based on a rough calculation of about one (1) ton of cooling per 500 square feet of floor space in residential construction, the system appears to be sized correctly for the residence.

• AirSpec measured the temperature exiting the cooling coils and found it to be 56ºF. With a room temperature of approximately 77°F. This is a difference of 21°F. Typically, the ΔT of a residential system should be between 18° and 20°F in order for the cooling coils to reach the dewpoint during the summer cooling season. Therefore, the HVAC system is operating properly.

Cause and Origin with Timeline

Based on the assessment findings, it is AirSpec's professional opinion that there are three sources of water and mold damage to this residence.

Causation 1: It is AirSpec's professional opinion that water is moving into the residence through the concrete slab by capillary action. It is very likely there is a failed vapor barrier underneath this residence.

The above causation is explained in more detail using the following tables.

6

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

Yes

No

n/a

Causation Hidden

X

Water Infiltration Hidden

X

Mold Growth Hidden

X

More than 14 Days Elapsed Between Onset and Corrective Action

X

More than 30 Days Elapsed Between Onset and Corrective Action

X

The timeline categorization is based on the maturity of the mold growth, severity of water damage, experience, professional opinion, research, and in some cases, species of mold present.

Type of Loss, Structure

Yes

No

n/a

Accidental Discharge

X

Condensation

X

Elevated Humidity

X

Rising Groundwater

X

Property Vacant > 30 Days

X

Wear and Tear

X

Deterioration

X

Settling

X

Flooding

X

Overflow

X

Repeated Seepage

X

Power Failure

X

Lack of Maintenance

X

Neglect After Loss

X

Intentional Loss, Acts

X

Faulty, Inadequate, Defective Design

X

Type of Loss, Contents

Yes

No

n/a

Water Damage

X

Condensation, Humidity

X

7

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

Mold Growth and/or Contamination

Yes

No

n/a

Mold Growth on Building Materials

X

Mold Growth on Contents

X

Mold Spore Settlement on Contents

X

Mold Growth Greater than 10 Contiguous Square Feet (Possible)

X

Licensed Mold Remediator Required

X

Barriers, Neg. Air Filtration, etc. Required

X

Causation 2: The surface mold colonization on the contents and building materials throughout the residence was caused by the homeowner's inability to control the indoor relative humidity. Elevated relative humidity increases the water activity of surfaces. This increased water activity facilitates xerophillic mold colonization. Xerophiles are organisms that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water, also known as water activity. Water activity (aw) is a measure of the amount of water within a substrate an organism can use to support growth. Xerophiles are often said to be "xerotolerant", meaning tolerant of dry conditions. They can survive in environments with water activity below 0.8. When the surface and the air are in the equilibrium, this equates to a relative humidity of 80%.

The above causation is explained in more detail using the following tables.

Yes

No

n/a

Causation Hidden

X

Water Infiltration Hidden

X

Mold Growth Hidden

X

More than 14 Days Elapsed Between Onset and Corrective Action

X

More than 30 Days Elapsed Between Onset and Corrective Action

X

The timeline categorization is based on the maturity of the mold growth, severity of water damage, experience, professional opinion, research, and in some cases, species of mold present.

Type of Loss, Structure

Yes

No

n/a

Accidental Discharge

X

Condensation

X

Elevated Humidity

X

Rising Groundwater*

X

8

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

Property Vacant > 30 Days

X

Wear and Tear

X

Deterioration

X

Settling

X

Flooding

X

Overflow

X

Repeated Seepage

X

Power Failure

X

Lack of Maintenance

X

Neglect After Loss

X

Intentional Loss, Acts

X

Faulty, Inadequate, Defective Design

X

*Rising groundwater may be a contributing factor during the winter months when the HVAC system is not in the cooling mode. The rising groundwater infiltrating into the residence may be increasing the airborne moisture load inside the residence.

Type of Loss, Contents

Yes

No

n/a

Water Damage

X

Condensation, Humidity

X

Mold Growth and/or Contamination

Yes

No

n/a

Mold Growth on Building Materials

X

Mold Growth on Contents

X

Mold Spore Settlement on Contents

X

Mold Growth Greater than 10 Contiguous Square Feet (Possible)

X

Licensed Mold Remediator Required

X

Barriers, Neg. Air Filtration, etc. Required

X

Causation 3: The sagging drywall of the garage ceiling was caused by poor workmanship during the initial construction of the residence. Chronic* elevated relative humidity inside the garage has also contributed to the deformity of the ceiling drywall panels.

*AirSpec identifies each causation as short-term (a few days to one week), long-term (one week to one month), or chronic (months to years) exposure to moisture. This classification is based on the maturity of the mold growth, severity of water damage, experience, professional opinion, and in some cases, species of mold present.

9

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

The above causation is explained in more detail using the following tables.

Yes

No

n/a

Causation Hidden

X

Water Infiltration Hidden

X

Mold Growth Hidden

X

More than 14 Days Elapsed Between Onset and Corrective Action

X

More than 30 Days Elapsed Between Onset and Corrective Action

X

The timeline categorization is based on the maturity of the mold growth, severity of water damage, experience, professional opinion, research, and in some cases, species of mold present.

Type of Loss, Structure

Yes

No

n/a

Accidental Discharge

X

Condensation

X

Elevated Humidity

X

Rising Groundwater

X

Property Vacant > 30 Days

X

Wear and Tear

X

Deterioration

X

Settling

X

Flooding

X

Overflow

X

Repeated Seepage

X

Power Failure

X

Lack of Maintenance

X

Neglect After Loss

X

Intentional Loss, Acts

X

Faulty, Inadequate, Defective Design

X

Type of Loss, Contents

Yes

No

n/a

Water Damage

X

Condensation, Humidity

X

10

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

Mold Growth and/or Contamination

Yes

No

n/a

Mold Growth on Building Materials

X

Mold Growth on Contents

X

Mold Spore Settlement on Contents

X

Mold Growth Greater than 10 Contiguous Square Feet (Possible)

X

Licensed Mold Remediator Required

X

Barriers, Neg. Air Filtration, etc. Required

X

Recommendations

• Consult with a hydrogeologic engineer to determine the cause of the hydrostatic pressure underneath the slab.

• Apply a concrete sealer to the slab. If this application does not control the water infiltration, consider injecting a slab sealant underneath the residence.

• Install drywall nailers along the perimeter garage walls. Replace the sagging drywall panels.

• Measure the relative humidity inside this residence when the air conditioner is set to the cooling cycle and operating and also when dehumidifiers are not present. This can determine whether the current HVAC system is controlling the indoor relative humidity.

• Remove the mold amplification from the residence in order to prevent further structural damage and possible adverse health effects to occupants. An experienced contractor should provide the remediation. Proper procedures (IICRC S-520) must be followed in order to ensure the mold is cleaned up entirely without contaminating other areas of the residence. See the remediation protocol in section 6 of this report.

11

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

AirSpec appreciates the opportunity to be of service to all parties involved on this project. We look forward to further correspondence. Keep in mind that AirSpec can provide additional services in the form of project oversight and/or post-remediation inspections. Feel free to call AirSpec at 321-251-6656 if you have any questions concerning this project.

Inspected by,

Mike Steepy, CIH, CSP, CIEC

FL Lic Mold Assessor MRSA76

Certified Industrial Hygienist

12

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

3.0

Supporting Evidence

A) Findings and Photographs

Left Picture: Furniture contents located in the master bedroom. Right Picture: Visible surface mold colonization on content surfaces.

Left Picture: Furniture contents located in the living room. Right Picture: Visible surface mold colonization on the underside of the coffee table

13

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

Left Picture: Dining room table. Right Picture: Visible surface mold colonization on the underside of the dining room table.

Left Picture: South guest bedroom dresser. Right Picture: visible surface mold colonization on back of the dresser.

Left Picture: King-size bed, headboard, and nightstands in the master bedroom. Right Picture: Visible mold colonization present on the back side of the nightstand and on the drywall. These furniture pieces are providing an insulating layer which are trapping moisture against the perimeter wall. During the winter months when the

14

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

residence has elevated relative humidity and the walls are colder, condensation is occurring on these wall and furniture surfaces.

Left Picture: The master bedroom nightstand was moved away from the wall. The carpet pad and concrete floor underneath the nightstand was wet. Right Picture: AirSpec examined the exterior master bedroom wall. The exterior wall was in good condition. No water infiltration through the exterior wall is suspected. There is no evidence of plumbing inside this perimeter wall.

Left Picture: shows the sagging garage ceiling drywall. Ceiling texture is also flaking away from the ceiling surfaces. Right Picture: shows garage ceiling drywall that had detached or had been removed from the ceiling.

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Left Picture: shows more drywall that had detached from the garage ceiling. Right Picture: shows the attic side of the sagging garage ceiling drywall. The arrow points to a missing ceiling nailer.

The four images above show efflorescence to the concrete slab. This efflorescence indicates water is infiltrating through the slab as a result of capillary action.

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B) Mold Spore Sampling

Mold Spore Surface Sampling

The Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC) developed the IICRC S520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation. The S520 standard is a procedural standard and is based on reliable remediation principles, available scientific and industry literature and information, and practical experience.

The IICRC S520 has categorized the indoor environment into three possible conditions when considering the level of mold spore contamination.

Condition 1: An indoor environment that may have settled spores, mold spore fragments or traces of actual growth whose identity, location, and quantity, are reflective of a normal mold spore ecology for a similar indoor environment.

Condition 2: An indoor environment which is primarily contaminated with settled spores that were dispersed directly, or indirectly, from a condition 3 area and which may have traces of actual growth.

Condition 3: An indoor environment contaminated with the presence of actual mold growth and associated spores. Actual growth includes growth that is active or dormant, visible or hidden.

Condition 3 Environment

Condition 3 surface sampling is a sampling method to prove the existence of Condition 3 mold growth. During certain instances, visual verification of mold colonization is not sufficient and direct sampling of the mold contaminated surface is necessary. Surface sampling is conducted by pressing a prepared tape lift onto the mold contaminated surface. The tape lift is then immediately applied to a clean microscope slide and sent to an accredited laboratory for analysis.

According to an article published by Geoffrey Clark, MS, CIH, ROH in the The Synergist, American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2001, updated 2003, and Goddish 2001, to confirm mold growth on household surfaces, surface mold spore counts must exceed 1,500 spores/cm2.

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Surface Sample 150313H004

Location: East M. Bedroom, Wall behind Bed

Observation: This location was chosen because of suspect visible mold growth on the surface.

Interpretation of sample result: Confirms mold colonization of Aspergillus/Penicillium in excess of 1,500 spores/cm2.

Surface Sample 150313H005

Location: South Guest Bedroom Dresser

Observation: This location was chosen because of suspect visible mold growth on the surface.

Interpretation of sample result: Confirms mold colonization of Aspergillus/Penicillium in excess of 1,500 spores/cm2.

Surface Sample 150313H006

Location: Underneath Kitchen Countertop

Observation: This location was chosen because of suspect visible mold growth on the surface.

Interpretation of sample result: Confirms mold colonization of Aspergillus/Penicillium in excess of 1,500 spores/cm2.

Based on the surface sample results, mold colonization has occurred on the sampled surfaces. Remediation of the Condition 3 mold-contaminated building materials is required in order to return the work area to a Condition 1 environment.

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C) Affected Areas & Dimensions

It should be assumed that all contents and building material surfaces inside the Rivera residence are mold contaminated. This mold colonization was caused by a chronic exposure to elevated relative humidity. All building material surfaces should be remediated in accordance with the IRI CRC S520 standard.

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4.0

Limitations

This assessment was conducted following standard practices and guidelines. Regardless of the thoroughness, it is possible that some areas containing visible mold growth, water damage, and/or elevated moisture content or other indicators of poor indoor air quality were inaccessible or not evident during the assessment.

The findings and recommendations included represent conditions evident at the time of the assessment. Building conditions related to indoor air quality, microbial growth and moisture intrusion may be subject to change on a daily basis, particularly after catastrophic events. Therefore, the conditions observed and reported herein may not be evident in the future. If additional information becomes available which may affect AirSpec's findings and recommendations, we request the opportunity to evaluate the information and modify our findings and recommendations as appropriate.

AirSpec assumes no liability for existing conditions or damage within the subject residence or for any consequential effects that may result from our services and collection of field samples. Mold spore growth or moisture may exist in areas within the residence that were not accessible or not explored as part of the requested evaluation.

AirSpec assumes no liability for any perceived or documented health effects of the occupants, visitors, contractors, or any other individual that has or may come in contact with the residence that may be attributed to the microbial conditions present within the residence. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that individuals who believe that they are ill because of exposure to mold in a building consult a physician. Nothing in this report should be construed as medical advice.

AirSpec has endeavored to meet what it believes is the applicable standard of care ordinarily exercised by others in conducting this assessment. No other warranty, express or implied, is made regarding the information contained in this report.

This report has been prepared for the sole and exclusive use of the client subject to previously agreed-upon terms and conditions. This report may not be suitable for the needs of others. Therefore, any reliance by other parties on the contents of this report is not granted and any such reliance shall be at the sole risk of the user.

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5.0

Laboratory Sample Analysis Results

Surface Samples:

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6.0

Mold Remediation Protocol

Rivera Residence

A. Scope of Work - Microbial Decontamination, Drying, and Clearance Testing

The Scope of Work that addresses microbiological decontamination includes, but is not limited to the following activities in the residence:

Work Process Summary:

1. The mold remediation work area includes the entire residence.

2. No containment barriers are required. The entire residence will serve as the containment.

3. Set up negative air filtration in the work area. Insure airflow throughout the work area during the cleaning operation. Additional air scrubbers may be necessary.

4. Remediate all contents, furnishings, and building materials in accordance with the IICRC S-520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation for a Condition 3 environment.

5. Clean the HVAC system.

6. Conduct a post-remediation inspection

A photographic record of the work process should be kept, especially of the water and mold damaged building materials and contents.

Specific Mold Remediation Requirements:

• Containment: No containment barriers are required. The entire residence will serve as the containment.

• Negative Air: One negative air machine should be used to provide ventilation during remediation activities. Install a negative air machine at one end of the work area and exhaust through the closest window/doorway. A piece of plywood or rigid foam board insulation can be used to support the exhaust duct and provide a tight seal. (Additional air scrubbers may be necessary and can be installed in locations deemed fit by the remediators.)

Slightly open a window on the opposite side of the work area (farthest away from the negative air machine) to allow for make-up air flow. The objective is to create an air current through as much of the work area as possible.

The use of a negative air machine will provide a healthy indoor environment for remediation workers, protect mold spores dispersion to other areas of the residence, and will also facilitate a successful post-remediation inspection.

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Negative pressure must be maintained throughout the duration of the remediation. The negative air machine should be converted to air scrubber mode during non-work hours to maintain the security of the work area. The negative air machine should continue to operate for two days after the remediation is completed.

• HVAC: Cool/Cold Winter Season Weather: Close all supply and return air vents in the containment. Warm/Humid Summer Season Weather: Due to the adverse effects of heat stress on workers and productivity, and the possibility of further mold colonization as a result of increased indoor relative humidity, AirSpec suggests the use of a portable A/C unit or to run the house air conditioner during remediation. Seal all supply air vents in the containment. Attach a high efficiency filter at the return air plenum. High-efficiency filters must be used in an HVAC system during remediation because conventional HVAC filters are typically not effective in filtering particles the size of mold spores. A filter with a minimum efficiency of 50 to 60% or a rating of MERV 8, as determined by Test Standard 52.2 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, may be appropriate. If the return air duct is located in the containment area, vent the HVAC unit from outside of the containment. As long as negative air pressure in the containment is present, all fugitive mold spores will be pulled out of the residence. No back pressure through the ductwork or other areas of the residence should occur.

• If the A/C unit is not used, dehumidifiers may be required to keep humidity levels below 65%.

• Contents/Furnishings: Based on the IICRC S-520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation, the contents and/or furnishings in the residence, as a result of surface mold colonization, are in a Condition 3 environment. Condition 3 is an indoor environment contaminated with the presence of actual mold growth and associated spores. Actual growth includes growth that is active or dormant, visible or hidden.

The S-520 standard classifies contents/furnishings into three categories; porous, semi-porous, and non-porous.

Porous materials are organic materials that quickly absorb water and provide an excellent food source for molds (e.g., clothing and other textiles, padded or upholstered items, leather, taxidermy, paper goods and fine art).

Semi-porous materials are organic materials that absorb water slowly, but, still provide a possible food source for molds (e.g., unfinished wood and masonry).

Non-porous are organic materials that have been altered to not absorb water easily; inorganic or synthetic materials, which do not absorb significant amounts of moisture and/or do not provide a food source for molds (e.g., finished wood, glass, plastic, metal).

The remediation of Condition 3 contents can be summarized as:

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Type: Porous Semi-Porous Non-Porous

Disposition Discard Discard Restore by cleaning

Micro-clean (HEPA vacuum and damp wipe with an anti-microbial solution) all salvageable contents and/or furnishings in the work area; all salvageable contents/furnishings should be cleaned by a method based on material composition, manufacturer instructions, and in accordance with the IICRCS-520 Standard for Condition 3 contents/furnishings. After cleaning, pack-out the salvageable contents/furnishings and store in a climate controlled storage pod/facility.

All irreplaceable items can be cleaned at the risk of the owner.

6. Remediation: All mold-contaminated building materials removed from the work area can be transported directly to a trash receptacle located outside of the residence. All mold contaminated building materials can be disposed of as normal solid construction waste. Due to the nature of this project and the possibility of hidden mold colonization, further removal of building materials may be required. Remediation can begin once the air scrubber is in place. Remove building materials 12-18 inches past the visible mold colonization.

• Entire Residence: Remove and discard all carpets. Remove the end cabinets in the kitchen. Determine if mold growth is occurring on the drywall or cabinet back. If mold growth is found, assume mold growth is occurring behind all wall and base cabinets.

• Building Materials/Surfaces: HEPA vacuum and/or damp wipe, with an EPA approved anti-microbial solution, visible microbiological growth from all building materials and surfaces, including the remaining baseboards, walls, ceilings, etc. Remove mold colonized building materials as required in accordance with IICRC S520 Standard. Inspect the inside of the wall and/or ceiling cavities around the remediated areas for any further mold colonization. If additional mold growth is found, remove and/or clean the affected building materials as necessary.

• HVAC System: Clean the air handler (inside & shell), plenum, return(s), diffusers, and ductwork. Replace all filters.

• Micro-clean all walls and surfaces in the work areas. Use a minimal amount of water in the cleaning process.

• Provide sufficient drying time for all surfaces that were cleaned.

• Prior to rebuild, contact AirSpec at 321-251-6656 to request a post-remediation inspection (PRI), additional fees will apply.

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• Once PRI clearance is granted, reconstruct the work area.

It is expected that the remediation contractor has experience in microbial remediation and therefore will be held to a professional standard with regard to complete removal of contaminated materials. AirSpec should be contacted if microbial growth outside the scope of this report is found. Any further remediation should be accomplished in accordance with NYC Guidelines, EPA recommendations, or the IICRC S520 Standard. If extensive additional remediation is required, the contractor should contact AirSpec and provide a description.

B. Occupancy During Remediation

The residence should not be occupied by anyone other than professional mold remediators during remediation activities.

C. Project Schedule

1. If any complexities arise during the remediation activities, work should be suspended and all interested parties should be consulted. These parties may include AirSpec, insurance adjusters, or the homeowner. The financially obligated party must approve all change orders.

2. All work stoppages should be documented in writing.

3. Remediators must avoid any situation that could result in an illegal activity, injury, or adverse health consequence for workers or occupants. Such situations warrant a work stoppage.

4. During a work stoppage, environmental conditions in the work area must not be allowed to degrade. Dehumidification equipment must be maintained to prevent further mold amplification. If adjacent space is occupied, negative air must be maintained.

5. Contact AirSpec 72 hours prior to the post-remediation inspection in order to prevent delays in the reconstruction process.

D. Environmental Monitoring

Monitoring can be conducted by request in all work areas where decontamination activities take place. Items that may be monitored include on-going measurements of temperature and relative humidity, air pressure differentials between work areas and adjacent areas, moisture content in building materials and airborne and settled spore count levels.

E. Preliminary Health & Safety Measures

The disturbance or dislocation of microbially-contaminated material and the disinfection of microbially contaminated facilities may cause molds, spores, or other biological agents to be released into the building's atmosphere, thereby creating a potential hazard to workmen and building occupants. Apprise all workers, supervisory personnel, subcontractors and consultants who will be at the job site of the seriousness of the hazard and of proper work procedures that

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must be followed. It is anticipated that significant amounts of toxigenic fungi can be released by this work activity if proper procedures are not followed. All cleaning and decontamination activities should follow the general guidelines listed below.

1. Protection of the safety and health of remediation workers and building occupants is of paramount importance in mold remediation projects. Each employer must comply with safety and health regulations applicable to businesses that perform this work. Generally, these include, but are not limited to:

a. OSHA General Duty Clause, 29 CFR 1910

b. Emergency Action and Fire Prevention Plans, 29 CFR 1926.20

c. Personal Protective Equipment, 29 CFR 1926.25, 1910.32

d. Respiratory Protection, 29 CFR 1910. 134

e. Asbestos, 29 CFR 1101, 1910.1001, EPA NESHAP at 40 CFR 61

f. Lead, 29 CFR 1926.62, 1910.1025

g. Heat Disorders and Health Effects, OSHA Technical Manual TED 1-0.15A, Section 111, Chapter 4

h. Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200

i. Lockout / Tagout Procedures 29 CFR 1910.147

j. Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.450, 29 CFR 1910.28

2. In addition, the following safe work practices should be incorporated into mold remediation work practices. Procedures include:

a. Maximize the extraction of pollutants by using high efficiency (HEPA) vacuums to remove cleaning residues.

b. Insure that all chemicals used for cleaning are registered for their intended use and applied properly

c. Minimize human exposure to pollutants by using non-toxic cleaning agents.

d. Ventilating the areas where chemicals are being used as much as possible.

e. Use properly diluted cleaning agents.

f. No eating, drinking, or smoking in any potentially contaminated areas.

g. Wash hands at the end of the workday.

h. Wear Personal protective equipment appropriate to the hazards

i. Use protective coveralls whenever entering a contaminated area.

j. Repair or replace any damaged protective equipment.

k. Dispose of contaminated protective clothing prior to exiting a work area.

l. Wear latex, chemically resistant, or vinyl surgical gloves while inside containment areas.

m. Wear a second pair of work gloves over the surgical gloves to protect against personal injury.

n. In the event a glove is damaged, discard the glove, wash hands with soap and water, and inspect hands for injury.

o. All workers involved in project set up activities shall wear appropriate eye protection and safety shoes.

p. All workers actively involved in removal of moldy building materials, surface cleaning or decontamination activities should wear Impervious gloves when

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skin/hand contact with active mold growth is likely and full-body protective (TYVEK or similar) disposable clothing at all times.

q. Workers should wear N-95 respirators in the contaminated areas and full-facepiece respirators equipped with P-100 cartridges during remediation activities. All workers involved in applying chlorine-based biocides or cleaning solutions shall wear full facepiece respirators equipped with P-100 pre-filters/cartridges and cartridges approved for use with chlorine or acid gases.

r. Before exiting from the containment, all workers will HEPA vacuum their suits in the decon area. Respiratory protection must be disinfected according to manufacturer recommendations.

F. Cleaning and Decontamination Procedures and Requirements

The following is a general outline of the procedures that should be used to decontaminate building surfaces and addresses the general requirements for a safe and effective cleaning and decontamination project.

1. Preliminary Activities

a. Prior to initiating any micro-cleaning activities, A/C supply and return air vents that will be inside the containment must be sealed off.

b. Attach ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI's) to any electrical equipment that will be used in the project.

2. Contents Cleaning - All indicated contents should be cleaned or discarded in accordance with the IICRC S-520 standard.

a. All contents in the containment area should be cleaned by a method based on material composition and manufacturer instructions. After cleaning, all items that were removed from the containment area should be stored in the non-work area or in a remote storage location.

b. Contents should be separated into one of three categories - Non-porous, semi-porous, and porous.

c. All porous and semi-porous contents that were directly water damaged and present active mold growth should be discarded.

d. Non-porous items, in most circumstances, are restorable.

e. Semi-porous and porous items are restorable if only general air contamination is present and/or the mold contamination is only settled spores.

f. Do not dispose of any items without the consent of the financially obligated party and homeowner.

3. Create regulated work area and arrange for containment of work area.

a. Install the Air Filtration Device. Remediation can begin once the AFD is installed. Maintain appropriate air pressure differential control to remove any contaminants that could be released during the removal and cleaning operations and to prevent cross contamination. Use an AFD to exhaust the work area continuously during the project. The AFD should be positioned at

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the furthest point and/or downwind from the entrance. A sufficient number of AFD's must be utilized in order to maintain 4-12 air changes per hour or an air pressure differential of -0.02 water gauge in the work area. Visually confirm that a negative air pressure is present at all times. If negative pressure is lost, stop all remediation activities and repair the leak.

b. Install necessary environmental control equipment (portable A/C, dehumidifiers) in order to maintain a safe working atmosphere.

4. Work Area Gross Contamination Remediation.

a. All identified impacted materials should be treated and/or removed. (Section A). The removal of contaminated material should extend two feet past the visible mold contamination.

b. Cut out the impacted building materials in a controlled manner in order to reduce the level of dust and spread of mold. Two man teams should be employed and HEPA vacuums should be used to control dust.

c. Spraying or misting materials prior to removal is not recommended.

d. Hidden Mold - During the remediation process-hidden mold may be discovered. Small areas of mold may be remediated. Large areas greater than three square feet should be reported to AirSpec and proper procedures for removal should be agreed upon.

e. The use of encapsulants, sealants, ozone, and ultraviolet light as a substitute for source removal and detailed cleaning is generally not recommended.

f. The exposed structural members, studs, sill plates, floors, and beams should be HEPA vacuumed, treated with the cleaning solution, and HEPA vacuumed again. Heavily impacted structural members that cannot be cleaned should be considered for replacement or sanded and HEPA vacuumed. All other remaining materials should get the HEPA-clean-HEPA treatment.

g. All discarded building materials and personal effects will be gooseneck sealed in plastic bags. All bags leaving the containment must be HEPA vacuumed. There are no specific requirements for the disposal of moldy materials.

5. Decontaminate the containment area after all mold amplification is removed.

a. Thoroughly HEPA vacuum all surfaces within the containment area.

b. Prepare the cleaning solution. MIST the surfaces of all areas that have been HEPA vacuumed and wipe clean.

c. All horizontal and vertical surfaces will then be HEPA-vacuumed again.

d. Remove all waste material from the work area in 6 mil plastic bags and dispose of as normal solid waste.

e. The negative air machines or air scrubbers should be left on for two days after the mold is removed and prior to the post-remediation inspection.

6. Post-Remediation Inspection

a. Post-remediation clearance of the work area can be conducted by request of the interested parties. Clearance testing will be based on accepted microbiological post-remediation testing (clearance) protocols. AirSpec will be

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looking for an environment void of visual microbial growth and moisture. Also, one that does not indicate unusual microbiological conditions with respect to species present and comparison with reference samples.

b. Air scrubbers or negative air should continue to operate for 48 hours after the remediation is completed. Next, the air scrubbers or negative air should be shut down and the post-remediation inspection should occur 24 hours later. This amounts to a three-day period between the time the remediation is completed and the post remediation inspection occurs. This practice will allow a sufficient number of air changes to help ensure airborne mold spores have been removed from the containment area.

c. In order to pass an AirSpec Post-Remediation Inspection, there must be no visible mold on any remaining remediated building materials. If the visual inspection is satisfactory, air sampling will be conducted. All air samples must have a total mold spore count within the ranges specified on the following table. These levels are typical outdoor mold spore levels for the State of Florida compiled by Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, Inc. (2008).

Mold Spore Type Low Medium High Freq %

Alternaria 7 13 193 41

Basidiospores 27 373 10579 96

Bipolaris/Drechslera 7 13 187 42

Botrytis 7 13 293 5

Chaetomium 7 13 201 8

Cladosporium 27 427 7817 94

Curvularia 7 40 1034 65

Epicoccum 7 20 314 25

Nigrospora 7 17 213 45

Oidium 7 13 158 6

Penicillium/Aspergillus 27 213 3675 84

Rusts 7 13 361 12

Smuts, Periconia,

Myxomycetes 7 40 680 74

Stachybotrys chartarum

(atra) 7 13 400 2

Torula 7 13 141 16

d. Once a satisfactory post remediation inspection is achieved, AirSpec will certify that the work area is free of visible mold, the remediated surfaces are within acceptable criteria, and that the air sample results are within parameters. The post remediation inspection report will give clearance for reconstruction of the work area to begin.

G. General Instructions

The following information is provided for the remediator's general use during the decontamination project and also to provide the building/home owner information on the scope of the project. These decontamination guidelines are for water-damaged materials.

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1. Cleaning of non-porous and semi-porous building materials

a. Non-contaminated drywall may be cleaned with a damp cloth and then HEPA vacuumed. Contaminated drywall will always be removed.

b. Contaminated studs and beams may be cleaned using a damp cloth and an anti-microbial cleaning solution. Heavily contaminated wood building materials may require sanding and/or wire brushing. Any items not capable of being cleaned will be discarded and replaced.

c. All contaminated particleboard should be discarded. Plywood should be evaluated based on the condition of the plywood.

d. Concrete flooring can be cleaned with the HEPA-clean-HEPA method.

e. Ceramic tile and linoleum may be cleaned using the HEPA-clean-HEPA method.

f. Concrete ceiling structures should be HEPA-sanded-HEPA cleaned. The paint should also be removed. After the contamination is removed, the ceiling should then be recleaned using the HEPA-clean-HEPA method using an anti-microbial cleaning solution.

H. Protocol Reference

This protocol is based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New York City Department of Health Bureau of Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology and Guidelines, and the IICRC S-520 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation. These guidelines are the industry standard for the safe removal of mold contaminated building materials. In addition, other reference sources are used in order to provide the most current and prudent practices in mold remediation.

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7.0

Supporting Documents and Information

A) Mold Health Hazards

Molds are simple, microscopic organisms present virtually everywhere, indoors and outdoors. Molds, including all mushrooms and yeast, are fungi and are needed to break down dead material and recycle nutrients in the environment. Molds need organic materials as a food source to grow and reproduce; including leaves, wood, paper and insulation. Add heat and humidity above 60% and you have happy mold that proliferates rapidly.

Because molds grow by digesting organic material, what molds ingest is eventually destroyed. Molds release innumerable lightweight spores, which in most instances eventually become airborne and travel to other destinations. These destinations then can become mold infested and sometimes toxic.

Negative Health Effects of Mold

Molds produce negative health effects through inflammation, allergy or infection. Allergic reactions, including fever, are common after mold exposure. Symptoms of those exposed to toxic molds, which issue mycotoxins both individually or in combination are:

• Immune system suppression

• Respiratory problems including asthma and infections

• Eye irritation with burning, watery or reddened eyes

• Cough - dry and hacking

• Nose or throat irritation or both

• Skin rashes or irritation

• Memory impairment

• Irritable bowel syndrome

• Body aches and pain (Chronic Fatigue)

• Food Intolerances and allergies

• Headaches

• Mood swings

• Nasal and sinus congestion

What Molds are Hazardous?

The most common indoor molds are Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. Stachybotrys (pronounced "stacky-bow-triss") chartarum, known as "black mold," is not uncommon and certainly not rare. Stachybotrys may produce compounds that have toxic properties known as mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced depending on what the mold is growing on, conditions such as temperature, pH and humidity. Mycotoxins can appear in both living and dead mold spores.

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While Stachybotrys is growing, a wet slime layer overlays the spores, preventing them from becoming airborne. When the mold dies and dries, air currents or handling can cause spores to become airborne. Stachybotrys chartarum (also known as Stachybotrys atra) is a greenish-black mold that can grow on material with a high cellulose and low nitrogen content, such as fiberboard, gypsum board, paper, dust and lint. Growth occurs when there is moisture from water damage, excessive humidity, water leaks, condensation, water infiltration, flooding or a combination of the above. Constant moisture is required for growth.

How Do We Know If Toxic Mold Is Present?

If you can see or smell mold inside your home, office or school, take steps to eliminate the excess moisture and to safely clean up and remove the mold. You may also suspect mold contamination if mold-allergic individuals express mold-related health problem symptoms, even if mold is not visible. Be aware mold infestation may be hiding underneath or behind water-damaged surfaces or behind walls and ceilings.

Who Is Most At Risk From Toxic Mold Exposure?

For some people, a small amount of mold spores can create health problems, particularly asthma and respiratory ailments, while others can tolerate an extremely high amount of spores prior to ill effects. Those most susceptible to mold health problems are individuals with existing respiratory conditions.

Persons with weakened and suppressed immune systems, particularly those in treatments such as chemotherapy and the elderly, are at higher risk. Infants and young children likewise are more susceptible to serious health problems from mycotoxin exposure. Anyone with health problems believed due to mold infestation and exposure should seek professional medical assistance immediately.

B) Moisture and Mold Prevention Tips

After the remediation and reconstruction is completed, facility mangers and homeowners must commit to a mold-free environment by taking the necessary steps to prevent a recurrence mold contamination. Integrate the following practices into your building management plan or home maintenance practices.

• Moisture control is the key to mold control. When water leaks or spills occur indoors - ACT QUICKLY. If wet or damp materials or areas are dried 24-48 hours after a leak or spill happens, in most cases mold will not grow.

• Maintain all painted surfaces on exterior wood surfaces.

• Clean and repair roof gutters regularly.

• Make sure the ground slopes away from the building foundation, so that water does not enter or collect around the foundation.

• Keep air-conditioning drip pans clean and the drain lines unobstructed and flowing properly.

• Keep indoor humidity low. If possible, keep indoor humidity below 60 percent (ideally between 30 and 50 percent) relative humidity. Relative humidity can be

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measured with a moisture or humidity meter, a small, inexpensive instrument available at many hardware stores.

• Do not carpet bathrooms and utility rooms. Remove and replace flooded carpets.

• Strive for positive building pressure to reduce infiltration of humid, hot air.

• Avoid impermeable vinyl or other impermeable coverings on the interior building surfaces.

• Install vapor barriers based on climate.

Actions that will help to reduce humidity:

• Vent appliances that produce moisture, such as clothes dryers, stoves, and kerosene heaters to the outside where possible. (Combustion appliances such as stoves and kerosene heaters produce water vapor and will increase the humidity unless vented to the outside.)

• Use air conditioners and/or de-humidifiers.

• Run the bathroom fan or open the window when showering. Use exhaust fans or open windows whenever cooking, running the dishwasher or dishwashing, etc.

If you see condensation or moisture collecting on windows, walls or pipes ACT QUICKLY to dry the wet surface and reduce the moisture/water source. Condensation can be a sign of high humidity.

Actions that will help prevent condensation:

• Reduce the humidity (see above).

• Increase ventilation or air movement by opening doors and/or windows, during low humidity months. Use fans as needed.

• Cover cold surfaces, such as cold water pipes, with insulation.

• Increase air temperature.

• Install a humidity control device on the HVAC unit

C) References

1. IICRC S520: Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation 2nd Edition. Institution of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification. Vancouver, WA. 2008

2. IICRC S500: Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Water Damage Restoration 3rd Edition. Institution of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification. Vancouver, WA. 2006

3. Recognition, Evaluation and Control of Indoor Mold. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Fairfax, Va. 2008

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4. Fungal Contamination: A Manual for Investigation, Remediation and Control. Hollace S. Bailey, PE, CIAQP, CIE, CMR. Building Environment Consultants, Inc. Jupiter, FL. 2005

5. Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. Janet Macher, ScD., M.P.H. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH. 1999

6. Worldwide Exposure Standards for Mold and Bacteria. 7th Edition. Robert C. Brandys, PhD, MPH, PE, CIH, CSP, CMR and Gail M. Brandys, MS, CSP, CMR, CIEC. OEHCS Publications. Hinsdale, IL. 2003

7. Post-Remediation Verification and Clearance Testing for Mold and Bacteria - Risk Based Levels of Cleanliness Assurance 1st Edition. Robert C. Brandys, PhD, MPH, PE, CIH, CSP, CMR and Gail M. Brandys, MS, CSP, CMR, CIEC. OEHCS Publications. Hinsdale, IL. 2003

34

Claim 2800148876

Project ID M15031306

About AirSpec…..

AirSpec, Inc. was formed in 2002 due to the rising concern over safety and wellness issues involving indoor air quality and mold issues within the State of Florida. Since our inception, we have become a leader in our field and the "go to" company for discovering hidden causes of mold damage and indoor air quality complaints. We pride ourselves in providing thorough, unbiased inspections, outstanding knowledge of building sciences, and quick report turnaround.

All of AirSpec's inspectors are Florida licensed mold assessors, are certified through the ACAC in microbial and/or indoor environmental consulting, and receive thorough on-the-job training.

The following is a brief listing of our services:

Indoor Air Quality - Water Infiltration - Mold - OSHA - Industrial Hygiene

• Indoor Air Quality investigations to determine the cause of indoor illness

• Water Infiltration Investigations to discover structural water leaks

• Post-Water Infiltration Inspections to verify proper structural drying

• Cause and Origin Investigations for water infiltration and/or mold damage

• Mold Inspections including moisture readings

• Mold Spore Sampling (air, tape lifts, or swabs)

• Detailed & Specific Mold Remediation Protocols

• Post-Remediation Inspections for reconstruction/occupancy clearance

• Clandestine Drug Lab (Meth Lab) verification, cleaning protocols, and post-remediation inspections

• OSHA compliance solutions

• Industrial Hygiene and Safety Consulting

• LEED Consulting

• Expert Witness Testimony/Services

All reports generated by AirSpec are considered legal documents. AirSpec and all employees are bound by The American Board of Industrial Hygiene ABIH (abih.org) code of ethics. These canons provide standards of ethical conduct for industrial hygienists as they practice their profession and exercise their primary mission, to protect the health and well-being of working people and the public from chemical, microbiological, and physical health hazards.

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#16
In reply to #13

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 12:45 AM

I'm would go with a perimeter drain system ....to start, and then possibly under slab pumping of grout, to seal any trouble spots...

http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete/slab_jacking/what_is_slab_jacking.htm

http://www.waterproofmag.com/back_issues/201107/underslab_retrofits.php

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#21
In reply to #16

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 8:17 AM

Agree with the U drain, french drain, etc.

Not sure if the slab jack is going to work or is necessary unless slab is cracked and sinking.

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#24
In reply to #13

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 12:18 PM

Mold in the master bedroom ceiling could indicate that the pipes in the attic are leaking. Have you examined them?

Also in a previous CR4 thread, the wet carpets were getting wet from condensation from the AC system getting into the concrete from quite a distance away. That condensation should be going down a drain.

Ruling out the 2 issues above, professional help is needed as has been said.

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#14

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 11:01 PM

You need to hire a local consulting engineer familiar with ground water problems. There is no way that we can see the local conditions and comment on how to remediate your situation.

Depending upon your exact location geologically and hydrologically the condition may be due to construction taking place miles from your location that has inadvertently disrupted the path of an underwater aquifer or caused an old dry stream or artesian well to start flowing again. Only professional help can possibly assist in understanding what can, and can't, be done. You're going to have to spend real money to investigate the root cause and possible solution (if any) to your woes.

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#15

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/03/2015 11:49 PM

Sounds like from the report you my have a little spring popping up under you slab. You might want to look into the cost of installing a french drain with sump pump to remove the water under your house. Best way to check drill a hole through the slab the hydraulic pressure of the water will reveal the spring.

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#17
In reply to #15

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 1:03 AM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBbvdki9b4g

Attached is a really good example of installing French drain in a concrete slab.

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#18

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 3:52 AM

Living in a swamp ≠ living the dream!

When exactly did the problem start? When you moved in or way later?

Are you close to a river bed, like the name suggests? Maybe the groundwater table is slowly coming up again.

I'd go with SE advice!

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#19

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 4:10 AM

How is your garden looking lately? Are you plants thriving. It looks to myself that you have a water course under you slab. or a small spring has appeared, or some recent frac'ing has changed an underground spring course and the weakest pont is under you house.

If it is, the insurance will tell you: Act of God, and that you have no chance of getting it paid out.

Bore a small hole in the slab, take a water sample and have the water sample tested and this will help determine where the water is coming from; i.e. spring water, sewerage water, processed water, as they will all read very differently.

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#20
In reply to #19

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 8:14 AM

SEE POST 15

LMFAO

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#22
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Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 8:42 AM

Yep, you are dead right and I missed post 14 too.

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#23

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 9:37 AM

If it turns out to be a change in the water table, you could, if you feel like making the Governor look like an idiot (and who DOESN'T love making the elected officials look almost as dumb as they are), write an open letter to him, submitting it to as many local and regional papers as you like for publication, saying, in effect, "You've banned mention of Global Warming or Climate Change, how about you try banning the Climate from changing? Humans have already proven they can change the climate, by draining Florida swamps. You don't think human activity has consequences for the planet?"

(Normally politicians don't NEED hemp looking or acting stupid, but when there's a nice opportunity to take Yet Another Verbal Potshot at them, why hold back?)

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#27

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 1:08 PM

Have sump pump installed it will remove the water from under the slab. It would pretty much solve the problem no matter the source of the water. The extent of the problem you have the water under the slab would have to be in contact with it to leave wet spots on the top surface. It's a wonder someone has not suggested it.

I read a lot of comments about the posible source. One I may missed reading or wasn't brought up is a water main leak. You said they test for water leaks. They only tested from the meter to the home. How far is the meter from the home?

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#28
In reply to #27

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 1:17 PM

See post 15 and 17 concerning french drain and sump pump system.

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#29

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 3:18 PM

We are having a problem with some high humididty/moisture content in one of our facilities and before we replace some sheet vinyl flooring a flooring contractor will treat the floor with a process where they shot-blast the floor, put down an epoxy sealant, etc. We will then put down new sheet vinyl flooring.

The flooring contractor will guarantee the floor not to leak or allow moisture through.

The exterior grade of your building is also the first place to start the process and make sure there is nothing that is contributing to water getting under your floor.

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#30

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 3:28 PM
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#31
In reply to #30

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 3:44 PM

Looks like the windows are leaking....get outside with a hose and spray the windows and look for intrusion....you may need to reseal the windows...

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#37
In reply to #31

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/08/2015 1:54 AM

Looks a bit that way. As you described its an easy check before starting other works.

It may be leaking windows and a wallaby-ted under slab membrane. More than one problem.

Don't see why the house can't be lived in (according to the report) while being sorted.

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#33
In reply to #30

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 8:56 PM

Thanks for the pics. It seems many posters hardly give any information at all and then expect detailed answers.

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#34
In reply to #33

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 9:02 PM

Agreed! I gave him a GA for meaningful information.

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#35
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Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/05/2015 12:11 PM

Wouldn't it be a lot more fun and interesting if more of the posts were like this?

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#36
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Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/05/2015 1:42 PM
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#32

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/04/2015 5:20 PM

You could make a ditch around the house, close to the walls, not a wide one, but make sure that the bottom is below your floor slab.

Check for water and drain or pump it out.

If that deck doesn't dry out, you are on top of a well, which is unlikely. To speed drying out, use a air dehumidifier or heat up the house (floor) and vent the rooms.

(do not use a flame directly on concrete, since it can explode locally)

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#38

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/25/2015 5:31 PM

Has there been a resolution to your problem? Is so what was done?

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#39
In reply to #38

Re: Water Under Slab Foundation Pushing Up Into Home

06/26/2015 12:06 AM

Not yet. I am in the process of making both bathrooms usable again. My master bathroom had a lot of mold and we had to remove almost everything including floor and wall tiles from the shower. We are now in the process of redoing it again. I am also getting ready to install gutters all around the house. If that doesn't calm the problem I will have no choice but to install a french drain. That is probably all that my finances will allow me to do for the moment. I have been monitoring the rain since this is our rainy season but I have not been able to locate anywhere that I can see where the water is going under the house.

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