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What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/06/2018 5:32 AM

Hello,

I do work as instrument engineer in a company and i have to offer instrumentation for an Ozonator in water treatment plant. But before i could offer the instruments, i personally want to learn about this process.

It would be a great support if anyone could provide the relevant documents / videos links.

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#1

Re: What is ozinator and how it works

05/06/2018 6:24 AM

Firstly be ABSOLUTELY safe!!! Ozone does not forgive.

Basically, Ozone is usually created on site using high voltage discharge in controlled system. Oxygen source is either Liquid Oxygen (through evaporator giving pure Oxygen) or DRIED compressed air.

The ozone is then diffused through the water. In doing so, the Ozone reacts with organic elements in the water (Usually odour or flavour sources) to break them down by Oxidizing the items. This process also provides a level of sterilisation if there has not been adequate pre-treatment like membrane filtration.

Since not all Ozone will be consumed by this process, the tank top is usually enclosed to capture any escaping gas and that is then directed though a device to "destruct" the Ozone back to Oxygen.

Whatever the instruments, they need to be able to withstand that chemical exposure.

Note also, if using compressed air, the combination of Ozone, Nitrogen and water can create some VERY nasty byproducts like Nitric Acid if the gas lines are not properly constructed and constantly vented to keep dry.

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#2

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/06/2018 12:21 PM

It will be obvious to any technically competent engineer that you are trying to blow smoke, unless you have a thorough understanding of the process and how the instrumentation works to control it.

Do your homework!

The electric characteristics of the ozonator discharge

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#3

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/07/2018 9:45 AM

I first worked on an ozone treatment plant for potable water in 2003. At that time there was very little in the form of literature and no videos available. That might have changed but I doubt it, the supplier companies give out very little information about ozone treatment to keep the customers coming back to them. Ozone has no smell, it can't be seen and ppm quantities will cause severe damage to the lungs of anybody who breaths it in. The most common ozone sensors work by UV absorbance and will measure concentrations to and accuracy of 1-2 parts per billion. The Ozone generator will come with two sensors built in (note full redundancy) but you will need to locate more around the installation. I have always connected the sensors to a safety circuit and treated it similar to E. stop buttons and machine guarding. You will need to complete the same type of in depth risk assessment as you would for machine guarding. The critical points in ozone treatment are matching the dose to the water flow rate (always go slightly high so you guarantee full treatment, Any excess will be gassed off and broken down to oxygen by heating to 300oC over a catalyst and then vented to atmosphere) and the amount of time that the ozone is in contact with the water. Batches of water can be treated in agitated tanks but for continuous flows the ozone should be injected into the front end of a static mixer. These are plug flow devices so dividing the required flow rate (m3/min) by the cross sectional area of the static mixer (m2) gives you the water speed (m/min). Multiplying this by the required contact time will give you the length of static mixer you need. Gas off the spare ozone in a tower immediately downstream of the static mixer. A typical arrangement is a pair of concentric pipes. The water flows up through the inner pipe and weirs over into the outer pipe from where it passes on downstream to the next process, usually sand bed filters. The top of the outer pipe is sealed apart from a port leading to the ozone destruction unit. The ability to raise and lower the inner pipe to adjust the weir height is a simple way to set the flow rate especially in gravity fed water treatment plants. (I encountered one plant in Wales where the weir was not easily adjustable and was ½ inch higher than the infeed to the plant. They had spent £¾ million constructing and elaborate U-tube.)

From an instrument and control aspect, cross interlock everything. If the water stops flowing shut off the ozone. If the ozone stops generating shut off the water (but allow the operators to bypass, sometimes supplying untreated water is better than supplying no water and they can always hand dose with chlorine or bromine as a temporary measure)

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#4
In reply to #3

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/08/2018 4:20 AM

I like your post. Very informative.

A correction is needed though:

"... Ozone has no smell, ..."

Ozone does have a smell, detectable to some humans down to the 10s of ppb level and many down to the 100s of ppb level. Often described as 'clean' or 'pungent' and reminiscent of chlorine, it is the smell of a thunderstorm....or electrostatic precipitator. You (probably) know the smell even if you haven't previously associated it with ozone.

Not yet ready to trust this new to you information? Perhaps you are willing to trust a more classical source.

The word ozone comes from the Greek 'ozein' which means 'to smell'.

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#5
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Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/10/2018 4:33 AM

You beat me to it! Smell of ozone is sometimes noticed near electical gear. As you say, it's a bit like chlorine, and equally dangeroue if it's inhaled.

Workers on water treatment plants using ozone (are supposed to) wear monitors which show product of concentration x exposure time.

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#6

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/10/2018 11:32 AM

Do some homework first. There are numerous good books on the subject of Ozone manufacture and other aspects of it. There was one written in the 70' about "electrical discharge in chemicals", sorry I don't remember the exact title, that has an excellent section on ozone. Google for it.

Ozone was first utilized for sewage sanitation treatment around the early to mid 60's by the French. It was extensively researched by the sewage industry in the USA starting around the mid to late 60's. Research has continued since that time. It was later utilized for water treatment. Its usage has increased slowly because of the costs to generate it. It's utilization has increased because of the environmental problems and by-products from the use of Chlorine.

Again, do some research. Google "manufacture of ozone". Some results include:

https://www.ozonesolutions.com/journal/2011/how-is-ozone-made/

A simple lab device to produce ozone includes: a small glass condenser with ground glass ends; ZnCl solution; some aluminum foil; some rubber tubing; a source of air or oxygen; wire; a hi-voltage transformer such as used for neon signs or the ignitor on a boiler. Look in a Physical Chemistry text book for how to set this up. The ZnCl solution is contained in the center tube of the condenser and connected to one pole of the transformer. Aluminum foil is wrapped around the exterior of the condenser and connected to the other pole of the transformer. Pass air or Oxygen through the cooling jacket section. Turn on the electricity, flow the air or Oxygen and you are making Ozone!

Caution! the 50% stuff is dangerous. The 5% is used to clean open sores and cuts. The 10% is used for dying hair. The 15-20%, for water treatment. The 50 % stuff is DANGEROUS.

Again, do some research !!!!!!!

Look it up or google it.

GOOD LUCK, Old Salt

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#7
In reply to #6

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/10/2018 4:18 PM

Your lab set-up to produce ozone sounds feasible, but I'm puzzled by

"Caution! the 50% stuff is dangerous. The 5% is used to clean open sores and cuts. The 10% is used for dying hair. The 15-20%, for water treatment. The 50 % stuff is DANGEROUS."

That sounds more like hydrogen peroxide solution than ozone. Ozone, like most gases isn't soluble in water to anything like those concentrations.

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#8
In reply to #7

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/10/2018 7:43 PM

Codemaster-

You are very right, I stand corrected. Problem was created by definite aging of the mind that did the ozone project in college. Graduation was many, many years ago (no numbers here). The reason I even remember it was I was the only one who knew what a "risk analysis" was and it sounded interesting to do the Ozone work.

The 50% peroxide is still very dangerous stuff. It will certainly do more than make you a blonde!

Thanks again for catching the mistake. A GA for you!

Old Salt

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#9
In reply to #8

Re: What Is an Ozinator and How Does It Work?

05/11/2018 3:46 AM

No problem! Didn't want anybody to be confused. I like to think I also acknowledge it when I get something wrong, which happens often enough. Thanks for the GA.

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