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Oxygen Splitter

Posted May 24, 2020 10:23 PM by phoenix911

Since this CORVID-19 pandemic, I had mentioned in a earlier post that I developed a Oxygen (O2) Splitter where hospitals that have poor infrastructure the can create the instruments as they need it. What an O2 Splitter does, is acts like a manifold to deliver regulated O2 to multiple patients.

At the time, a call was put out that they were looking for volunteers to develop a very simple O2 Splitter design. It sounded interesting, so I gave it a shot, but in developing it, I had came up with basically (2) designs, One being a very simple and easy O2 Splitter, and one being more robust with repeatable controls. The more robust one I shelved, and basically forgot about it. Until this pandemic occurred.

Now for a little more details, there was a need for medical equipment for country’s that didn’t have the resources or the infrastructure to stock or acquire various instruments and the goal was to be able to 3D print the needed instruments.

In that way, the remote hospital, would only require a 3D printer, a stable electricity, and raw materials (filaments) where they could print what they need as needed.

Here is a link that’s has more details of the O2 Splitter.

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#1

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 5:40 AM

First, a more precise definition. Does this "splitter"

1. take variable flows and deliver a precise fractional split? or

2. does it deliver two precise flows from a single potential supply?

If 1 then it will be a nuisance in clinical use, because one will have to make 2 adjustments every time you want to change a single patient's flow.

If 2 then it will still be a nuisance because one cannot easily observe at a distance or make adjustments without extra movements to and from the patient area.

Every bed should have a high pressure oxygen pipeline with a flowmeter. When patients are moved the flowmeter goes directly on the oxygen cylinder.

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#3
In reply to #1

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 7:01 AM

take variable flows and deliver a precise fractional split?

Good questions,... I was concerned with that also.

I did do a test on this earlier prototype, I set-up a table top lab apparatus with two flow meters, with a regulated supply, each side each though slightly is different with the same settings

And then I had both set at different settings to see how it affects flow to each outlet

if you look at the video, I did have ‘strands’ on the bottom of the FNPT using ABS.

I had since tried the carbon fiber on the another project that had threads, and had a lot cleaner results.
what I would do is use the carbon fiber on the body, change the settings to lower the heat on the platen after the first layer is set down, to eliminate or reduce thermal distortion. And also revise the design to have a Full 45 degree Cone above the threads to eliminate the strands.

one thing about the carbon fiber, is that it’s extremely hard on the brass nozzles, it wears them out. I’ve ordered stainless nozzle for this.

when this is done, the best way is to test a number of them for repeatability. When I first done this, testing was not in the scope. But I did set up the table top lab apparatus anyways for my own ‘curiosity’.

and I can understand the nuisance if it’s is different, That’s why more refinement is needed, which I stated, and then calibrated fir repeatability.

2. does it deliver two precise flows from a single potential supply?

Yes, the source would be from a single supply, my goal was repeatability, When tests are run, Each would have to be tested from a regulated supply, isn’t the tests, I would also regulate the supply flow to see how that affects usage.

all in all, this was the second proto-type, and again, the first proto-type didn’t require that, must splitters just pinch the supply hose,... at least that’s the ones I saw. That’s why I did this Second proto-type. I did’nt do anything with it, because it fell outside the realm of the scope. That being longer print time and used more material.

after the I completed the first one, I basically forgot all about this until recently.

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#5
In reply to #3

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 7:17 AM

I’m running out of time,... I’ll have more I like to add, I’ll do it when I have more time tonight... and I believe I have the desk top testing apparatus some where,... hopefully it’s in one piece yet where I didn’t use the parts for another project.

back to you later...

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#2

Oxygen Splitter manifold

05/26/2020 5:52 AM

Well Done from Southern Africa!

Just worried a bit about the "Distribution Philosophy" for 3rd-world countries.

Ditch hospitals printing them. Too political, bureaucratic and difficult and by the time they find the money to build a 3D-Kit and buy the multicolored-fibers, the patients will have died out...

Rather use the existing online-3D bureaus or N.G.O's to print them for a number of hospitals in their area?

I looked at the instructables but cannot find your She / He mail? Please utilize grahama1000 AT Yahoo dot COM Thanks

KEEP up the GOOD Work!

Andrew

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#4
In reply to #2

Re: Oxygen Splitter manifold

05/26/2020 7:08 AM

How it was explained to me, they would direct resources to the best positive impact.

Regulated electricity supply, a generator, printer, in a controlled environment, and filaments.

In the scope I received, they pointed out, not to be concerned about the required infrastructure. That was another problem being addressed.

as far as multi-color filaments, don’t be too concerned, That was my personal preference, the design can have embossed numbers. The whole thing can be printed with in colored filaments. The material would change.

as far as patients dying, that’s why they put this Request out. They were dying.

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#8
In reply to #2

Re: Oxygen Splitter manifold

05/26/2020 8:46 AM

A little bit more about it,... the initial requirements came from a foundation organization, not a hospital, government agency or Red Cross.

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#6

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 7:23 AM

It appears to be just a gas flow divider or flow diverter?

The title of this project is kind of misleading.. since oxygen molecules are not being split?

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#7
In reply to #6

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 8:41 AM

Gas Flow Divider, flow diverted, manifold, Ect... I believe it’s a case of Semantics.
Oxygen Splitter was the term used on the scope. So if that’s the norm in the medical field, I’m not going to go against the grain.

its actually just a valve.

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#9
In reply to #7

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 8:49 AM

That is exactly my point, it is normal terminology especially in the medical or hospital environment..I’m not trying to against anyone, just kind of misleading..

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#10
In reply to #9

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 9:41 AM

I agree,... when I first looked at the scope, being a splitter. I was thinking... this may be above my skill set. When I actually read the scope. I was thinking... oh, a valved manifold.

i just never question the semantics. For one of the reasons, the time frame was tight.

But I saw issues, phph001 and yourself et al pointed out also.

And even though it wasn’t required, I made the table top testing unit. Even though it wasn’t required, I did it because I wanted to know that the effects on different conditions.

to add to this,.. the reasons I did it, was

if it could help there was nothing to lose,

I had just but this printer, and I was doing a lot of R&D projects and some just for fun (hobby)

  1. Tesla Turbine housing
  2. AR-15 lower (this is where I discovered carbon fiber infused filaments) I did it just for a model, not to be used. And that’s we’re I found out it tore up my brass nozzles on my printer.
  3. a Scaled model of a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) I was working in at the time.

and even though up my experience was very weak for medical devices, When ever I try something out of my comfort zone... that’s when you learn, and perform better what your good at.

its just nice to take an idea or concept and make and actual model that fits in your hand for proof of concept...

Thats why I challenges. And it’s just surprising the people you meet.

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#11
In reply to #10

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 10:27 AM

With the greatest of respect I still fail to see the point of this manifold exercise. Hospital gas pipelines are of the order of 4 bar in the UK and slightly less than that in the US, so you must have a reducing valve. This reduction is normally accomplished within a flowmeter, which typically has a ball in a glass tube which you can see from some distance away. If you do without the needle valve in that flow controller you must still drop the 4 bar down to appropriate levels, which I would not like to do in plastic material.

If the point is that the hospital cannot afford pipelines it's still going to have to afford oxygen in cylinders, and each cylinder is still going to need a two-stage regulator. All I see is that the 3D printed manifold replaces the sight glass of the flowmeter. If that is so then there is no point in a manifold, as it would be far more convenient to run low pressure lines to each bedside with an individual flow controller in a handy position.

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#13
In reply to #11

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 1:14 PM

Thanks, I’ll try to explain The details as well as the original scope, this happened over (4) years ago when a scope was sent out.

1.) It’s not for developed country’s or even Established hospitals. it’s for third world country’s that are in need for say an out break, Yes, thats that type of flow meters I have for flow control. I have a primary one suppling to the splitters, and then I had (2) secondary ones, one another each outlet, so I can see what effects happen, when I turn on higher or lower, what it has on the other outlet.

2.) yes, as I stated in the link, there would be a regulated oxygen. Now to clear things up, the regulator is for pressure, not flow control. This units will control flow. But being in a area limited in resources, As I understand it, what they are trying to do, is establish establish a design that can be used, using ABS filaments.

what I did and was doing, is establish a design that’s repeatability and established as soon as it comes off the printer. With ABS, I can adjust this with turning down the heat on the printer platen as well as some 3D construction design changes.

Again, they didn’t what to get too involved in the scope, and initially just wanted a simple design, with out having to compensate with the type of infrastructure. I just took it one step further to do so.

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#16
In reply to #13

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 2:50 PM

I'm still trying to make sense of it. We are now at the point of understanding that. the splitter is a replacement for a needle valve and flowmeter. The impoverished country still need to find the oxygen cylinders and pressure regulators.

The point I will continue to make is that the medical practitioner or nurse will still find it more convenient to have this oxygen supply control at the individual bedside, so manufacturing independent oxygen flow controllers makes much more sense than making them as a manifold.

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#18
In reply to #16

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 9:29 PM

I appreciate your insight.

I don’t disagree with what your saying. When I developed this, I followed the scope and met the requirements. So, let’s take this one step further, as to the reasoning...

As far as the reasoning, I can only speculate that there was something else that they were getting at and used a very simple scope requirement as a test bed for future development to see, not developing a more practical valve, but to see what the response was.

And what I saw and was a part of, how it was set up, along with the number of responses, base on my input for what I developed, the amount of man hours saved by people like myself volunteering was quite extensive.

And to add to that, as I mentioned earlier, my experience (Lack off) for making medical devices, it was also a way to think outside the box with a ‘fresh’ Perspective putting aside practical experience. With very development expenses.

So, reiterating,...the goal was not producing a better device practical device, the goal was trying a different way of doing it. So in a way,.., I agree, on its presentation, it doesn’t make sense. But they may have had a agenda that wasn’t easily apparent.

Digressing further... I actually experienced Something similar to this approach.

back in 1990, I worked at a shipyard which the majority of their contracts were for the US Navy. With the fall of the USSR, the United States had major military budget cuts.

what the Pentagon did, was to see if their suppliers could design, develop, produce and splash a Photo-Type craft in (6) months. (3) shipyards won a contract each to develop their own craft. To be tested against each other. This had multiple goals.

1.) Win the contract for multiple crafts.

2.) with the military winding down, see if industry can develop, tool up, produce a new craft, in a very short time frame (18 Months from drawing board, sea trials and full production. For multiple hulls) in case a crisis occurred.

the test bed project was the MK-V Special Operations Craft for the navy seals.

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#12

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 12:26 PM

I printed a couple of ventsplitters, designed to share a ventilator between two patients and with FDA approval for last resort use. No hospital I contacted was willing to even look at it because:

1. We're not at last resort yet and wouldn't consider looking at one until they were.

2. You aren't on our contract supplier list even though this is a donation.

3. Our lawyers won't let us do anything not part of normal protocol.

Good luck pushing your head through the oatmeal.

I did manage to get Montana Masks and face shield frames into a hospital, but only with sponsorship from one of the doctors on staff who was actually preparing for the model peak and was willing to go through the local hospital approval process before it was a crisis.

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#14
In reply to #12

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 1:17 PM

I can understand that. When this came out, with the lack of requirements and regulations headaches to deal with made doing the actual design easier by giving just the goal.

i think if the scope reflected we had to follow any of the regulations or requirements. The response To their request would have been weak at best,

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#15

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 1:29 PM

I like to say, as a designer,... Since this is still a R&D, the opinions (Criticism) and insights on this Project, both positive as well as possible issues is welcomed as well as appreciated.

I think I’ll add a link on the project site comment section and listing this thread on CR4.

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#17

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 4:31 PM

I'd like to give one suggestion. I've been printing structural and pressure boundary parts for 15 years in ABS using Dimension SST768 and SST1200es printers and most recently a Stratasys F371.

The ABS material when printed ends up with about 0.5% porosity and under pressure blows bubbles like an aquarium air stone. I've been doing a 10 second dip in acetone on parts that need to be isotropic in x, y and z for strength, but also air and watertight. The 10 second dip doesn't affect dimensions and effectively closes up all the porosity in the part. This would minimize concerns about oxygen weeping and potential fires as a result. In instances where I needed to buildup a part, the ABS filament can be dissolved in acetone and becomes an ABS paint that can build up a surface and harden into native ABS plastic.

When dipped the parts can be blown off with dry air to clear small dimension features and passages. You can also lay fiberglass, fabric, paper, kevlar thread or graphite fibers on acetone or ABS paint wetted surfaces to robustly reinforce structural parts and pressure boundaries. The most extreme I have done so far was a 7" diameter ABS backpack blower impeller reinforced with two wraps of .041 stainless lockwire for extended performance testing at 12,000 RPM.

I am aware that there is also an acetone vapor technique that also works and I have used it on a couple of occasions, but there is an added risk factor as the acetone vapor is highly flammable, explosive or both. I did it in a glass container over a chemists ceramic heater to avoid ignition sources and it works quite well.

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#19
In reply to #17

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/26/2020 9:36 PM

Thanks for the tips... in the link... I had a suggestion tip in Step 4 of putting the cover in a vapor chamber with acetone for strengthening for just that purpose. And you right about the caution and it needs to be well ventilated.

as far as the body,... I though a carbon fiber fused filament would work better. I had great experience with that for dimensional stability and strength. What I saw others using it, they changed out their brass nozzles On their printer for Stainless they hold up better. Another down side for the carbon fiber,... the filaments were more expensive.

As far as doing the body With ABS,... I had a few print tests on the connections... the best one was using a FNPT thread... if I ran that through a vapor chamber, I would need to block off the thread if I post treated it so the threads don’t dull from the acetone.

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#20
In reply to #19

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/28/2020 3:17 PM

What I found with the 10 second cold dip is that the fusing and strengthening goes all the way through the part. It has two downsides.

In thick walled sections it takes a while for the acetone to fully outgas and if you warm it to speed up the process, you can dry a skin on the outside and then lift blisters from acetone vapor pressure from the inside.

In high dew point conditions, the acetone evaporation can can cool the part enough to condense air moisture and form a surface white haze. You can remelt the haze and make it clear again, but you really need a low dew point to avoid haze formation.

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#21
In reply to #20

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/28/2020 4:51 PM

Interesting... I’ll look into that on my next project,... but you have me thinking to also kick some ideas around here,... and I’ll lay it on the table...

Too bad acetone is so dangerous as vapors. I had done another project where I made a vacuum chamber to speed up the outgassing an another project. But these vapors are risky.

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#22
In reply to #21

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/28/2020 5:56 PM

Like I indicated, I have been using the dip for about 15 years and basically it was making sure to keep the part below about 60 degC for a day or so. It works best on solid prints and I've had a few melt from the inside out with reduced infill. When I've had to do sparse interior, I use an auto detailing paint gun and spray a single sloppy wet coat on once and then let it dry.

I also have excellent results with lacquer base surfacer-primer and automotive finishes.

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#23
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Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/28/2020 7:06 PM

Thanks... I imagine it all depends on material and time you can accept from making it with Less infill.

i friend of mine has a printer same as mine,.., the first 1-1/2 Years he spend a lot of time with temp platen temps And time, nozzle temps and material types. That’s where he showed me the carbon fiber prints he did, and the problems he had.

He shared quite of information which I used and forgot more because I didn’t write it down. .

whats your print envelope on your printer? Mine is Pretty small about 8” x 9” X 4” high

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#24
In reply to #23

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/28/2020 7:16 PM

One is 10 x 10 x 12 Dimension SST1200es

The other is 10 x 14 x 14 Stratasys F370

Both are heated build volume.

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#25
In reply to #24

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/29/2020 6:41 PM

if I had the stamina I had in my youth, I would have bought this.

This is a fraction of what I had dropped big for a computer (For CADD) in the late 80’s.

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#26

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/31/2020 2:19 AM

While this is kinda a neat idea, I hardly think a hospital with poor infrastructure is going to have the financial resources to construct such a complicated system.

Look at your typical home irrigation system : first you have supply, then a pressure regulator ( the anti siphon valve ) the distribution lines ( PVC pipe ) and finally spray heads ( 1/4 - 1/2 - 3/4 - full circle ) .

So you get an 02 tank ( supply ) then a regulator ( anti siphon valve ) then clear plastic tubing ( distribution lines ) a separate regulator for each patient ( spray heads )

Every thing easily obtainable, off the shelf, cheap to setup, build and move from one location to another as conditions warrant.

No 3 d printer required, no engineering team required to operate printers, no IT systems personnel to run software programs.

A 13 year old kid with a 99 cent's store calculator could figure out the costs and materials needed.

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#27
In reply to #26

Re: Oxygen Splitter

05/31/2020 9:08 AM

I agree, I do know how much your were following, as far as limited resources, how it was explained, was to make the largest impact, with the limited resources. With the

The original one I made and submitted, almost 5 years ago (along with this one) that, was a simply one, ... but in developing that, like a lot of developments had a number of iterations, or I’ll call paths in development, this idea path came up and I had to back up and go on the new path, but I shelved it because of the complexity.
I also agree with the other poster, and even on reasons why and the time.

This one, I only brought it off the shelf only recently. And as I posted before, The scope that was put out may had dual goal,

  1. being development,
  2. to find a new type of cost effective source for R&D,

the company that put this scope out, stated the reason one being for third world country’s, but in reality, it was to cut their development time, period.

I looked up the Organization at the time, it really didn’t have much information on, I just look it up again, and it’s not a organization, but a Medical Device development company. That supplies resources for universities.

And my earlier speculation was correct, they were using a community development process as a way to cut development as well as exposure,

And since, every thing submitted, as well as this, it’s public domain. Which I knew from the beginning. Maybe some ideas can be used in the future.

Thanks for your response,

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