Previous in Forum: SEC 8 DIV 1 and @   Next in Forum: Flow control
Close
Close
Close
42 comments
Participant

Join Date: Feb 2012
Posts: 3

Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 11:38 AM

Hello Everyone!

Can somebody help me to know if the Running Pump Impeller Size is reduced from 11in to 10in, what would be the effect on the discharge pressure whether it would be increased or decreased;

Regards

Sajid Hussain

Register to Reply
Interested in this topic? By joining CR4 you can "subscribe" to
this discussion and receive notification when new comments are added.

Comments rated to be Good Answers:

These comments received enough positive ratings to make them "good answers".

Comments rated to be "almost" Good Answers:

Check out these comments that don't yet have enough votes to be "official" good answers and, if you agree with them, rate them!
Guru
United Kingdom - Member - Indeterminate Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: In the bothy, 7 chains down the line from Dodman's Lane level crossing, in the nation formerly known as Great Britain. Kettle's on.
Posts: 30332
Good Answers: 818
#1

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 12:24 PM

Significantly decreased, as the pump would be less resilient against slip; more of an agitator than a pump.

__________________
"Did you get my e-mail?" - "The biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place" - George Bernard Shaw, 1856
Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#2

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 12:28 PM

Yes and no. Thank you. Come again.

Ok on a more serious note. I must first say that we do not do homework problems here. This sounds very close to a homework problem. So I will not try to give you an exhaustive explanation for this and other reasons that will become apparent.

There are more aspects to a centrifugal impeller pump than just the impellar size. There's the motor spinning the impellar, the manifold housing surrounding the impellar, the impeller blade pitch, the viscosity of the fluid being pumped and the inlet and exhaust piping. All of these factors affect the discharge pressure one gets. Compounding this problem there's also the possibility that one can run a pump into the non-linear region of cavitation. So can the discharge pressure increase by just changing the impeller size to a smaller diameter, yes it can. Can the discharge pressure decrease by just changing the impeller size to a smaller impeller, yes it can.

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply
Participant

Join Date: Feb 2012
Posts: 3
#3
In reply to #2

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 12:46 PM

Thanks for your detailed note. However just for the sake of discussion, considering all other factors are kept constant i.e rpm, motor housing, viscosity of the fluid being pumped in and the inlet & outlet IDs; what could be the effect on discharge pressure pressure by decreasing the impeller diameter?

Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 4)
2
Guru
United Kingdom - Member - Indeterminate Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: In the bothy, 7 chains down the line from Dodman's Lane level crossing, in the nation formerly known as Great Britain. Kettle's on.
Posts: 30332
Good Answers: 818
#5
In reply to #3

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 12:52 PM

Trimming the impeller decreases the capability of the pump. In the limit, a pump with zero impeller diameter has zero capability.

__________________
"Did you get my e-mail?" - "The biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place" - George Bernard Shaw, 1856
Register to Reply Good Answer (Score 2)
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#6
In reply to #3

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 12:52 PM

I would anticipate a drop in pressure but I would not rule out the possibility of a rise in outlet pressure.

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 4)
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Hmmm...

Join Date: Jul 2010
Location: Maryland
Posts: 567
Good Answers: 29
#36
In reply to #6

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 5:50 PM

The diameter of the impeller directly affects the flow and the pressure. Different diameter impellers will also need more or less input power, i.e. a larger or smaller motor depending on the impeller size and the output needed.

I'm an EE, but my Dad used to sell pumps. I recall several he sold with modified impellers for specific uses. The catalogs would have charts detailing flow rate curves vs. input horsepower and impeller diameter.

The most interesting one was a Teflon coated impeller that he ended up getting stuck with. The buyer turned it away at the door after he'd already had it customized and delivered. Not a easy loss to recover as Teflon coated impellers are not easy to sell.

Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 5)
Guru
United Kingdom - Member - Indeterminate Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: In the bothy, 7 chains down the line from Dodman's Lane level crossing, in the nation formerly known as Great Britain. Kettle's on.
Posts: 30332
Good Answers: 818
#4

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 12:50 PM

Also - it's a single ticket; one cannot come back without replacing the impeller.

Also - the characteristics of a modified impeller cannot be predicted accurately without carrying out practical testing; 1in off the impeller might be too little or it might be too much.

So:

  • Consider adding a variable speed, variable voltage drive unit ["VVSD" or "VSD" in colloquial parlance] instead of modifying the impeller.
  • For smaller pumps, adding a restriction such as a hand-operated valve downstream of it may be the most cost-effective solution to "too much flow".

"Too much pressure" is either taken care of already by using pressure relief devices, or the system has taken care of it itself, by bursting.

__________________
"Did you get my e-mail?" - "The biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place" - George Bernard Shaw, 1856
Register to Reply
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#7

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/01/2012 1:54 PM

Your pressure, flow and amp draw will all go down.

Exactly how much is anybodies guess.

The pump manufacturer may have a pump curve with a 10" impeller shown, ask them.

Register to Reply
Associate

Join Date: Jan 2010
Posts: 53
Good Answers: 2
#8

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 12:34 AM

hi sajid its burki here, check this link

http://www.maintenanceworld.com/Articles/engresource/centrifugalpumps.pdf

its very good document about centrifugal pumps.

in this read Affinity Law (on 27th page), it gives u relation b/t Head and Impeller size.

best of luck

Register to Reply
Guru

Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: Phnom Penh
Posts: 4019
Good Answers: 102
#9

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 2:02 AM

If you reduce your impeller dia without reducing the housing or volute size the discharge pressure may drop right off to zero.

Is your bulldozer stuck because of a broken pump impeller and you only have a smaller spare that just happens to fit or what?

__________________
Difficulty is not an obstacle it is merely an attribute.
Register to Reply
Associate

Join Date: Aug 2011
Posts: 45
#10

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 4:19 AM

discharge pressure will reduce.You may even calculate if u have all the required data.

Register to Reply Score 1 for Good Answer
Guru

Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: srilanka
Posts: 2725
Good Answers: 5
#11

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 4:54 AM

According to the pump laws Q varies wth D,H,the head varies with D^2 and Power varies with D cube

__________________
pnaban
Register to Reply
Participant

Join Date: Aug 2011
Location: México
Posts: 2
#12

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 11:19 AM

As you can see in a pump typical performance curve, if you consider a constant flow, when you reduce the impeller diameter, your pressure also is reduced, so the power demand will be reduced too.

Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#13
In reply to #12

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 11:55 AM

I see that people are not grasping my point that there can easily be a scenario where an increase in pump pressure happens when one changes only the impeller diameter. (You happen to provide an excellent point to launch my explanation. I hope you don't mind CAR3. )

If the power demand with the larger impeller exceeded the power capability of the motor then depending on the motor torque curves the rotational speed can be slowed but not stalled to produce a much lower head pressure. But reducing the mechanical power demand with a smaller impeller can now allow the same motor to work at anticipated rotational speed and a net higher head pressure occurs.

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#15
In reply to #13

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 12:47 PM

Not sure I can buy into that. Maybe on very rare occasions.

If FLA+SF are exceeded, which would happen in your scenario, you'd more than likely trip the thermal overload or CB's.

Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#16
In reply to #15

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 1:46 PM

Fine, go ahead and add the condition of tripping the circuit breakers and/or thermal overloads with a full load ampere condition and service factor of an exceeded induction motor. A non-running motor attached to the larger impeller produces no pressure at all. Where a smaller impeller that doesn't overload the protection circuitry produces now considerably more pressure than nothing.

You should notice though in the link Figure 1 curve D for a high slip induction motor produces exactly the torque curve that need not induce a trip condition like my earlier scenario suggests. You should also notice that this motor torque curve is often chosen in oil well pump jacks.

I almost forgot, what in the world does combining Florida with San Francisco have to do with pumps. The only way these two come together in my mind involves a pie incident.

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply Score 1 for Off Topic
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#17
In reply to #16

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 1:52 PM

Never was much of an Anita fan, either.

Maybe I'm just a victum of a limited sphere of experience with various types of motors.

Register to Reply
Guru
Hobbies - DIY Welding - Don't Know What Made The Old Title Attractive... Popular Science - Weaponology - New Member United States - US - Statue of Liberty - 60 Year Member

Join Date: Apr 2009
Location: Yellowstone Valley, in Big Sky Country
Posts: 6954
Good Answers: 282
#18
In reply to #16

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 1:54 PM

I checked your link: I expected it to be Frank Zappa!

Oh, well... maybe next time.

__________________
When you come to a fork in the road, take it. (Yogiism)
Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 5)
Guru

Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: srilanka
Posts: 2725
Good Answers: 5
#19
In reply to #13

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 4:05 AM

Is it in accordance with pump laws?.

__________________
pnaban
Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Mechanical Engineering - Ever Changing United States - Member - From the Redwoods to the Valleys Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - Building blocks or writing code - to keep you comfortable

Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: 38th Parallel
Posts: 751
Good Answers: 19
#24
In reply to #13

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 6:17 PM

I think thats a reach.

If the motor and pump were sized correctly in the first place there should be no change on the DP, and any increase in speed would be taken up in a volute Wash / agitation. Your amperages go up since the motor is doing more work to move less water. Let alone the thumping and cavitation in the volute would drive me crazy.

We actually had this situation on a heat exchanger for a chiller. "Podunk Inc" came out and threw on what ever impeller they had in their truck. We got the call, thumping hammering, should have been a 5.75 impeller they installed a 5.0. The motor amperages were up and it was hammering since the space between the impeller and volute would not allow the pump to create the proper DP to move the fluid through the condenser. The Motor was working harder to move less water. Once we installed the right impeller the motor amperages dropped, the condenser Delta T increased and the cavitation and thumping were gone.

So one may think that the smaller impeller gives you more speed, but in fact it is the system head that reduces flow and kills the motor.

__________________
To be or not to be........ok that's a trick question.
Register to Reply
Guru

Join Date: May 2010
Location: in optimism
Posts: 4050
Good Answers: 129
#25
In reply to #24

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 6:37 PM

"what ever impeller they had in their truck"

Width is a big mass-flow factor. Mass flow is hp.

Tangential velocity is pressure.

Clearances count.

Of note is; if you machine down an internally tapered impeller you may reduce the pressure capability but increase the hp against a lesser working head because you have increased the mass flow.

__________________
There is no sin except stupidity. (Oscar Wilde, Irish dramatist, novelist, & poet (1854 - 1900))
Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#26
In reply to #24

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 7:40 PM

I think that its a reach that somebody would want to change the impeller size if fluid, motor and pump size were sized correctly in the first place. Do you normally change a critical, embedded part of a system because things are working exactly as expected? I'm only proposing that without knowing ANYTHING but that the impeller diameter was reduced by almost 10% that a higher net pressure may happen. Do I need to provide a link for the definition of the word "may". I'll admit that the only way I can conceive a smaller impeller could possibly produce more pressure is if things are failing with the larger impeller. If the motor and larger impeller pump weren't failing why would one want to change anything.

My other reason for ranting on about this is that we so often blind ourselves by expecting every engineering problem as always working linearly. In all engineering disciplines things only work linearly in a certain range of many parameters. We've been given only one parameter and have no idea what other parameters if any were changed, too.

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Mechanical Engineering - Ever Changing United States - Member - From the Redwoods to the Valleys Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - Building blocks or writing code - to keep you comfortable

Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: 38th Parallel
Posts: 751
Good Answers: 19
#28
In reply to #26

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 8:13 PM

I understand and would agree with the comments when it comes to the engineering. However this is what happened in a practical application on a job. It was explained to us by the on site engineer that the impeller had been struck by debris and the vanes damaged. The contractor that was called prior to us (trunk slammer) used a back woods solution to get by, mind you most back woods solutions work great, this one did not. We took it apart and found the problem and then installed the proper impeller. The system is still running good today and the debris was found in the chiller barrel when we broke it down for a rodding.

__________________
To be or not to be........ok that's a trick question.
Register to Reply
2
Guru
Engineering Fields - Piping Design Engineering - New Member Egypt - Member - Member since 02/18/2007

Join Date: Feb 2007
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Posts: 1734
Good Answers: 244
#14

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/02/2012 12:23 PM

The figure shows the pump head generated for various capacities (solid curve) for a 12-inch impeller (as an example) running at 3560 RPM. Replacing this impeller with a smaller 11 inch diameter impeller results in the lower dashed H-Q curve shown.

Similarly, replacing the current 12-inch impeller with a 13-inch impeller results in the H-Q curve shown by the upper dashed curve. It must be noted that we are comparing the performance of the same pump at various impeller diameters, running at a fixed speed of 3560 RPM.

Note. The head represents the pressure and vice versa, i.e. if the head is lowered, that means the pressure shall be reduced and vice versa.

...............................................

__________________
It is better to be defeated on principles, than to win on lies!
Register to Reply Good Answer (Score 2)
Power-User

Join Date: Nov 2008
Posts: 121
Good Answers: 4
#20

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 5:06 AM

For a given RPM, head developed varies in direct proportion to the impeller dia squared, i.e by reducing the dia from 11 inches to 10 inches, the pressure will reduce to 100/121=.8264 times the original head. so it will reduce by nearly, 17.36%.

Irshad

Register to Reply Score 1 for Good Answer
Guru
United Kingdom - Member - Indeterminate Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Jan 2007
Location: In the bothy, 7 chains down the line from Dodman's Lane level crossing, in the nation formerly known as Great Britain. Kettle's on.
Posts: 30332
Good Answers: 818
#21
In reply to #20

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 6:27 AM

Not 17.37%, then?

__________________
"Did you get my e-mail?" - "The biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place" - George Bernard Shaw, 1856
Register to Reply Score 1 for Off Topic
Power-User

Join Date: Dec 2010
Posts: 377
Good Answers: 20
#22

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 11:18 AM

But why at all you want to reduce impeller dia.

After all the replies, some are really well given, what do you think, and what you have understood please share your preparedness for home work.

Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Mechanical Engineering - New Member

Join Date: May 2008
Location: CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA.
Posts: 1854
Good Answers: 64
#23

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 12:30 PM

Dear Mr.SajidHussain,

The DISCHARGE PRESSURE WILL COME DOWN as the SQUARE OF THE DIA. At reduced dia, the impeller velocity will come down-for the same speed in RPM and hence the pressure will drop.

In your case you have referred the dia from 11 in to 10 in means, the pressure will be DROPPING TO 10^2/11^2 i.e 100/121=0.8264 of the original pressure at 11 in.

DHAYANANDHAN.S

Register to Reply
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#27

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 7:47 PM

I think this is a test question and OP is a student. If OP had any idea of pumps, this general question would be intuitive.

Sajid Hussain, why do you ask the question?

Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#29
In reply to #27

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/03/2012 10:38 PM

Yeah, I think that this is a student, too. I've felt this way back at reply #2. I warned the student that we don't do homework here and tried to feed him ideas so he could think for himself. Instead a squad of eager beavers insisted on not just force feeding an answer but providing chapter and verse along with charts to bulwark the effort. So I reached for a plausible albeit improbable scenario from a nearly identical personal experience that shows that a thinking engineer is better than a test taker.

So guys, when your boss brings you that new engineer that cannot tell the difference between a turbo charger and a vacuum turbo pump to help you on the project your four months behind, remind yourself how much you helped here.

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 6)
Anonymous Poster #1
#30
In reply to #29

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/04/2012 1:44 AM

Dear redfred, you have unnecessarily spent your time, energy and intelligence on a pity question and complicated it throughout the discussion. It is not really expected from genius like you.

Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 5)
Guru

Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: srilanka
Posts: 2725
Good Answers: 5
#37
In reply to #30

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 10:17 PM

What is the purpose of teflon coating of impellers,will it safeguard it from cavitation. Is metal spraying of cavitation-damaged impellers more economical than a new impeller. Should "balancing" of impeller to be done after metal spraying or teflon-coating.

__________________
pnaban
Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 5)
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#38
In reply to #37

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 10:28 PM

Chemical resistance.

Balancing is probably called for if adding material to an eroded impeller, not TFE coating a new one. It would have been balanced prior to coating.

Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 5)
Guru

Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: srilanka
Posts: 2725
Good Answers: 5
#39
In reply to #38

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 11:36 PM

OK,but you didn't mention why teflon-coating is done.

__________________
pnaban
Register to Reply Off Topic (Score 5)
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#40
In reply to #39

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 11:56 PM

OK,

Let me try again. The impeller would be teflon coated to give it resistance to acids, alkalines and other agressive chemicals.

Register to Reply
Participant

Join Date: Feb 2012
Posts: 3
#31
In reply to #27

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/04/2012 9:46 AM

Well.....General question becomes big question when one had no contact with the field since a long time. Anyway, I got the right answer on this forum and thanks to everyone for their time.

Register to Reply Score 1 for Off Topic
Guru
Engineering Fields - Electrical Engineering - Been there, done that. Engineering Fields - Control Engineering - New Member

Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Long Island NY
Posts: 15141
Good Answers: 937
#32
In reply to #31

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/04/2012 10:17 AM

Did you pass the test?

__________________
"Don't disturb my circles." translation of Archimedes last words
Register to Reply Score 1 for Off Topic
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#33
In reply to #32

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/04/2012 11:59 AM

Right, will OP give us credit for it?

Nope!

We just gave him a fish.

Register to Reply Score 1 for Off Topic
Guru

Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: Phnom Penh
Posts: 4019
Good Answers: 102
#34
In reply to #33

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 1:32 AM

We gave him a fish but he did bait the hook himself.

__________________
Difficulty is not an obstacle it is merely an attribute.
Register to Reply
Guru

Join Date: Oct 2008
Posts: 42294
Good Answers: 1662
#35
In reply to #31

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

02/05/2012 7:41 AM

I anxiously await your next visit.

Register to Reply
Associate

Join Date: Feb 2012
Posts: 37
#41

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

03/07/2012 12:24 AM

I completely agree with PWSlack. The discharge pressure will be decreased. Check your electrical connections all the way to the main panel for loose or bad connections. Get a cheap ammeter and check your motor amperage. If its higher than the name plate on the motor you need to find the reason.

Register to Reply
Guru
Engineering Fields - Mechanical Engineering - New Member

Join Date: May 2008
Location: CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA.
Posts: 1854
Good Answers: 64
#42

Re: Centrifugal Pump Impeller Size

03/02/2013 8:11 AM

Dear Mr. Sajid Hussain,

Pl. refer Pumps BASIC CHARACTERS which will show

1. Pump CAPACITY varies as PROPORTIONAL to SPEED.

2. Pump HEAD varies as PROPORTIONAL to SQUARE of SPEED.

3. Pump POWER varies as PROPORTIONAL TO CUBE of SPEED.

You have referred Impeller Dia is reduced from 11 Inches to 10 Inches.

Hence Impeller tip velocity will be 10/11 = 0.909 of Original Velocity at 11 inches, speed being the same. Hence HEAD developed with 10 Inch Impeller will be (0.909) x (0.909) = 0.8624 times the Velocity at 11 Inches Impeller, i.e 17.35% Less than original Head with 11 Inch Impeller.

Accordingly Power consumed will be 0.751 times of originally consumed power - 24.89% reduction, and capacity will fall by 9.1 %.

DHAYANANDHAN.S

Register to Reply
Register to Reply 42 comments
Interested in this topic? By joining CR4 you can "subscribe" to
this discussion and receive notification when new comments are added.

Comments rated to be Good Answers:

These comments received enough positive ratings to make them "good answers".

Comments rated to be "almost" Good Answers:

Check out these comments that don't yet have enough votes to be "official" good answers and, if you agree with them, rate them!
Copy to Clipboard

Users who posted comments:

34point5 (1); Abdel Halim Galala (1); Anonymous Poster (1); CAR3 (1); dhayanandhan (2); Dilip Dombivalikar (1); Doorman (1); IRSHAD (1); Lo_Volt (1); lyn (8); MarkhamCornoit (1); Mukesh0861 (1); piping_engineer (1); pnaban (4); PWSlack (4); redfred (7); Sajid Hussain (2); Stedou73ish (2); Wal (2)

Previous in Forum: SEC 8 DIV 1 and @   Next in Forum: Flow control

Advertisement