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Participant

Join Date: Jan 2013
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How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/06/2013 12:33 PM

I am looking for the procedure of zeolite refilling in home oxygen concentrator. Does any one can help me to do so? Is there any special tool needed for refill zeolite in sieve bed ?

Does the zeolite need special handling like protect form open air? If we expose zeolite in open air does it effect it's performance

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Guru

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#1

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 12:44 PM

I would not touch this with a 10 foot pole.

Get instructions from whoever is willing to sell you the zoelite. Then your survivors will know who to sue after you're gone.

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Associate

Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: Goulburn Oz.
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#9
In reply to #1

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 10:33 PM

The MSDS for Zeolite is available here http://www.clarkrubber.com.au/images/stories/MSDS/Pools/MSDS-zeolite.pdf

In summary

Detrimental Health Effects:

Only those associated with any finely ground powdered material in the area

Handling Precautions:

Breathing dust protection should be worn

Emergency and First Aid Procedures:

Move to fresh air, resuscitate, if necessary, seek medical advice

Steps to be taken in case Material is Released or Spilled

No toxic effects. Clean up and recover as suitable.

Waste Disposal Method

Spills on the ground should be cleaned up in a manner which does not generate dust.

Dispose of in a landfill or distribute thinly over any suitable cultivable land.

Protective Gloves

Not necessary but useful since powder is oil

absorbent and drying

Eye Protection

Safety glasses or goggles to prevent dust from

entering eyes

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#2

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 12:59 PM

Well since you are trusting your equipment ans what or whom ever else to random online advice I bite!

No zeolite is not open air sensitive. It's the medium that it separates the oxygen from in the first place.

Second as far as Lyn's concerns about liabilities. Pshhh. It can be bought online by anyone, eBay for one carries loads of it, and thusly used for what ever purpose the purchaser chooses to do with it without liability falling on the seller.

If I sell you a kite and you fly it into a live power line or I sell you a case of water and you mange to drown yourself with it that does not make me liable for your death in either case.

(Personally I recommend using a metal wire for your kite string BTW but thats just my random advice.)

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#6
In reply to #2

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 3:03 PM

Thanks. i need to know refill procedure for home oxygen concentrator like Respironics millennium and devillbis and airsep

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Participant

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#16
In reply to #2

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/10/2013 1:01 PM

thanks you for the comments. I'm sorry I did not introduced my self I'm running a home health care business to sale and service home care equipment. in my country no one is refilling the sieve bed and this is a big problem for us and our customer. in my country patients buy their own source all the medical equipment, no insurance companies or govt.support them. mostly patients are middle class or very poor . atmosphere is here very dusty and wet that's why most of concentrators needs refilling of sieve bed. I'm now a days trying to do this in our facility it would help us and our people and get cheaper refilling then the import of new or refilled sieve bed. so i need help in this regards

if some on can teach me. I'm very thank full to all of you for the very informative post.

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Guru

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#17
In reply to #16

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/10/2013 2:02 PM

It sounds to me that you could pay more attention to the inlet filters and that you would then not need to worry so much about the zeolite. It's probably cheaper, too.

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#3

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 1:06 PM

Your concentrator should have (had) instructions for this. If they are lost, try contacting the mfr by phone or Web. IIRC, this material is a desiccant, which may give off some irritating dust. A dust mask and gloves are advised.

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Guru

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#4

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 1:49 PM

The brand and model is required....the zeolite bed usually only needs to changed if it becomes contaminated with moisture..... Blurb from wiki...

"An oxygen concentrator has two cylinders filled with zeolite pellets. Air is compressed to a few times normal atmospheric pressure (typically 20 psi/138kPa gauge, or 2.36 atmospheres absolute) and passed through the zeolite bed. The bed adsorbs the nitrogen, leaving nearly-pure oxygen (plus small amounts of argon, CO₂, water vapor and other minor atmospheric components) in the output.

The zeolite becomes saturated within a few seconds, at which point the compressed air is fed to the second cylinder while the first is vented to ambient pressure, and the nitrogen escapes. When the second cylinder is saturated, the compressor switches back to the now-available first, and the cycle repeats.

Older units cycled with a period of about 20 seconds, and supplied up to 5 liters per minute of 90+% oxygen. Since about 1999, units capable of supplying up to 10 lpm have been available."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen_concentrator

Here is a manual for a DeVILBISS LT 4000...

http://www.medicare.com.mx/MANUAL%20FINAL%20CONCENTRADOR%20ESPA%C3%91OL%20LT-1928%20Rev%20A%20Final.pdf

General info....

http://www.frankshospitalworkshop.com/equipment/oxygen_concentrators_equipment.html

http://www.anaequip.com/free-ox-work.htm

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#5
In reply to #4

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 2:57 PM

Thanks for the use full information. I need to refill zeolite in Respironics millennium and in devilbiss. concentrator. can you please help me to inform the procedure?

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#7
In reply to #5

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 3:55 PM

Read the blinkin' instructions, then! Sheesh....

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#8
In reply to #5

Re: how to refill zeolite in home oxygen concentrator

01/06/2013 4:57 PM

I would urge you to contact the manufacturer/distributor for specific instructions and service/source centers....You will need the model numbers and any serial numbers...

http://www.healthcare.philips.com/us_en/homehealth/respiratory_care/millennium10/default.wpd

http://www.devilbisshealthcare.com/products/oxygen-therapy

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Guru

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#10

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/07/2013 1:32 PM

The answer to this is don't even think about it. In normal use there is no need ever to change the zeolite, and consequently it does not even appear in the user instructions. If, for some reason, the zeolite needs to be changed, this is a job for service personnel. This is part of a medical device, and interfering with it therefore carries a high responsibility.

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Guru

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#11
In reply to #10

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/07/2013 5:17 PM

I agree with you. Leave it alone, and clean the filter weekly.

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Associate

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#12
In reply to #10

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/07/2013 7:00 PM

The Zeolite - (seive beds) are susceptible to moisture contamniation wich will degrade their performance. (this could happen quiet frequently in a hi humdity environment I work in a very dry cliamte so it seldomn and issue).

Apart from the user turning blue from lack of oxygen the best way to check the performance is to measure the oxygen output concentration with an Oxygen meter.

Most Oxygen concentrators should be capable of producing 90% at a flow rate of 4lpm (varies from band to brand). This should be checked at least anually.

In the event that the unit cannot produce sufficient oxygen concentration at the required flow rate the the manufactures recomend replaceing the seive beds. The seive beds generally come from the manufacturer as a canister. So changing the Zeolite as such is not required.

Next time I pull a unit apart i will check but I belive the canisters are sealed so changeing the zeolite in them may be a bit tricky.

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Guru

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#13
In reply to #12

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/08/2013 10:09 AM

The Zeolite - (seive beds) are susceptible to moisture contamniation wich will degrade their performance.

I stand to be informed here. The zeolite is in a sealed line, with the compressor drawing room air in at one end and delivering an oxygen-rich mix at the other end. There is no source of moisture other than the room air. Moisture accumulating on the zeolite will also be vented with the nitrogen. The service manual for Invacare machines quotes operating limits of 20-60% relative humidity. What am I missing?

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Commentator

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#14
In reply to #13

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/08/2013 3:28 PM

The biggest problem with this issue is generally involved with transport of the units. Anytime they are to be moved from one location/environment to another, they should be sealed from the atmosphere. They should be placed in the new environment and allowed to adjust to temperature etc. for at least four hours, preferably 24 hours, before they are placed into operation. Changes in temperature, air pressure, and humidity that are rapid can result in condensation contamination of the cartridges. The cartridges are all always sealed units that must be replaced and cannot be "refilled" with the exception of some much older concentrators that should have been retired years ago! If it is possible to "refill" your units: THEY ABSOLUTELY SHOULD BE REPLACED ENTIRELY! They are so old they are a hazard to both health and safety! I was certified as a biomedical service tech about ten years ago, but I have not worked as a tech in years. But a few quick checks assured me that things have not changed much as pertains to these concentrators. WE NEVER REPLACED THE CARTRIDGES! IT'S CHEAPER TO BUY A WHOLE NEW UNIT! If one does get waterlogged, you can run it with a dry air feed for a few hours and usually recover most of it's function. They should be tested by a certified tech every 90 days, and anytime they are transported!

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#15
In reply to #13

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/08/2013 5:25 PM

Thats correct they are in a sealed line and the mositure contamination is via room air which generally is not a problem and they do give many years of trouble free opperation - the compressor is most likely to fail/ wear and become noisy before the zeolite becomes a problem.

But some users do some strange things - and opperate them outside the recomended range - use them in a bathroom or even as stupid and dangerous as it seems - by the pool! - and im sure some of the battery powered units have paid a visit to the beach....

In our facility we changed the seive beds in about 7 units in the last 12 months.

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#40
In reply to #15

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

03/21/2020 11:54 AM

Hey, I don't know if this will reach you, but with current events your expertise could be super helpful right now. Oxygen is one of the main needs for people suffering from the virus--I know there are a ton of decommissioned concentrators out there floating around...I've met people with pallets full. Cranking up a rebuilding effort seems like a good idea--could you contribute knowhow?

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#18

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/12/2013 8:13 PM

I am interested in this as well. I have been told that you need to protect yourself with a good mask, and make SURE all skin is covered. I was also told to make the transfer of material and reseal containers quickly.

I am wanting to recondition some medical concentrators to use as an oxygen supply for glass blowing torches. I have 16 used concentrators waiting for me to get this all figured out.

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#19
In reply to #18

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

02/20/2013 7:45 PM

I just replaced the canisters in a number of Concentrators (Respironics Everflo units)

Out of interest I disasembled the canisters and removed the zeolite.

Disasmbling the canisters required nothing more than a couple of spaners to remove the retaining Nuts and a small screw driver to lever out the end cap of the cyinders.

The Zeolite was in a small pellet form its colour and size looked remarkably like dried brewers yeast.

The zeolite poured easily from the canisters and produced very little dust.

Reasembly would only require replaceing the zeolite and refitting the caseing components.

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#20
In reply to #19

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

04/28/2013 11:42 PM

What are the dimensions of your sieve bed and do the sieve bed having the spring.

you can contact me *. may be i help you

*CR4 ADMIN - email address removed

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Join Date: Jun 2013
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#21
In reply to #20

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

06/17/2013 10:43 PM

We are trying to replace zeolite in Sieve Beds of 525DS Devilbiss Oxygen Concentrator.

Our Sieve beds dimensions are:

32 CM LONG X 6 CM DIAMETER……… SHAPE: CYLINDRICAL

Please let us know technical specifications of Zeolite we have to buy

Thank you,

Publio Armendariz

Quito - Ecuador

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#22
In reply to #20

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

07/02/2013 11:00 PM

Size & Shape:

AIRSEP BRAND, SIZE: 40 CM LONG X 8 CM DIAMETER………..SHAPE: CYLINDRICAL

DEVILBISS BRAND, SIZES: 44 CM LONG X 8 CM DIAMETER…..SHAPE: CYLINDRICAL

32 CM LONG X 6 CM DIAMETER… SHAPE: CYLINDRICAL

Thank you,

Publio Armendariz

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Participant

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#23
In reply to #22

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

12/30/2013 8:28 PM

place orifice plate -> steel mesh(smaller than zeolite particles)->pore zeolite equally in two cylinders ->steel mesh -> place Spring

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#28
In reply to #23

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

02/17/2016 3:11 AM

I have a Airsep Newlife Elite...How do I open the top covers of the cylinder.Are they threaded or is it press-fit on the cylinder.

2) on the Invacare Perfecto2, how would i open the canister for re-filling?

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#29
In reply to #22

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

07/05/2017 9:25 PM

did you ever figure out how to Re-pour sieve beds?

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#36
In reply to #20

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

09/15/2019 5:52 AM

"What are the dimensions of your sieve bed and do the sieve bed having the spring.

you can contact me *. may be i help you"

Hi, can you give me your email address? I am looking for a sieve bed supplier

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#35
In reply to #19

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

09/15/2019 5:47 AM

Hi,

I understood from your comments that you work in a zeolite sieve bed replacement facility. I myself work within a Romanian healthcare devices service company and we need to find a supplier for such zeolite sieve beds for oxygen concentrators (I mean the stuff to put inside the zeolite tanks.) Would you be so kind as to refer me towards one? Thank you very much.

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Participant

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#37
In reply to #19

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

09/15/2019 5:54 AM

"I just replaced the canisters in a number of Concentrators (Respironics Everflo units)

Out of interest I disasembled the canisters and removed the zeolite.

Disasmbling the canisters required nothing more than a couple of spaners to remove the retaining Nuts and a small screw driver to lever out the end cap of the cyinders.

The Zeolite was in a small pellet form its colour and size looked remarkably like dried brewers yeast.

The zeolite poured easily from the canisters and produced very little dust.

Reasembly would only require replaceing the zeolite and refitting the caseing components."

Hi,

I understood from your comments that you work in a zeolite sieve bed replacement facility. I myself work within a Romanian healthcare devices service company and we need to find a supplier for such zeolite sieve beds for oxygen concentrators (I mean the stuff to put inside the zeolite tanks.) Would you be so kind as to refer me towards one? Thank you very much.

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Participant

Join Date: Apr 2013
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#24

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

12/30/2013 8:35 PM

zeolite had a tendency to adsorb moisture, if moisture content increases- purity down.

to refill zeolite, orifice plate -> wire mesh (pore size smaller than zeolite) -> pore zeolite->wire mesh -> orifice plate - -> stainless steel spring for packing.

in order avoid moisture take silica beds or alumina or molecular sieve 4A

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Participant

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#25

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/17/2014 10:53 AM

Hi there, Many people have purchased used oxygen concentrators for non medical use of oxygen. Typically, the hobby glass blowers do this. I've been looking into this for a while. Here in Canada, I wouldn't even consider repairing let alone refilling a home concentrator that was to be used for medical use. As a medical device, I can prescribe it but I'm not authorized, or qualified to service these devices. That said, the chemist side of me found the challenge (from the hobbiest side of things only) irresistible. First, the terminology. Zeolites have been around since the late 1700's when they were discovered. "Boiling stone" (zeolite) released adsorbed water when heated. They are both naturally occurring and synthetic, the latter often referred to as molecular sieves even though they all are "molecular sieves". Ok, so bottom line now. These pressure swing systems either trap the desired molecule (nitrogen or oxygen) and release the other or trap he undesirable molecules and allow the desired (O2) to pass through. The trapping is temporary so once the pressure drops due to cyclic venting, the trapped gases are released. The system will have a minimum of 2 sieve chambers. (See SeQual ATF oxygen concentrators which are very interesting revolving multi cylinder system the patents are very interesting). In grad school, we used to re activate molecular sieves with heat and vacuum. This may well re activate your sieve. Since the sieve is by far the most expensive part of the equipment, re activation might be preferred for anyone trying this. So, what sieve to use? Since nitrogen gas is ~3A* in size it will, to some extent be adsorbed by all larger sieves. 5A and 13X are commonly sited in oxygen concentrators. 13X appears to be the most common. Interestingly, a found a paper that shows that oxygen concentrations up to 99% are possible with a sieve that has been treated with silver. Nitrogen has a preferred electrostatic attraction to the silver cations, further enhancing nitrogen separation from oxygen. The downside is that both oxygen and argon are passed through equally: 99% O2/1% Ar is ok for my uses of oxygen. Medically and chemically, the argon is considered an inert gas. So, the sticker shock on molecular sieve aside, I think I'll be introducing a little silver into the column. It's available on eBay quite regularly, but the amount needed is over 1Kg per cylinder (if my calculations are correct). I agree with the poster who said, "optimize the pre filter including moisture removal with silica gel) Sorry for the long, first post but I'd been looking for this for a while and so, thought I'd share. By the way, where are you from? Doug

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#26
In reply to #25

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/17/2014 10:59 AM

Not sure where my editing went. I swear there were paragraphs when I posted this! Is it something about my iPad? Doug

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#27
In reply to #25

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

02/05/2014 8:56 AM

we can use cms(carbon Molecular sieve), in order to generate 99.9% purity of oxygen in conjugation of zeo beds.

by using Nitroxy sx and rapid pressure swing adsorption, quantity of zeolite can be reduced.

I'm from India

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#30
In reply to #25

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

03/29/2018 5:07 AM

Heeey I read your post

Iam a chemist interested in this as I work on a project on oxygen genetator

I would love to get in touch and hear the project and the more challenges you take up to making chemistry real through engineering

Iam also very interested in the zeolite functions looking forward to reading more of your responses

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#31

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

05/27/2018 9:21 PM

I wish I saw this post sooner :(

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#32

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

10/15/2018 8:26 AM

hi sir,

please tell me if you solve it coz i am in your same situation.

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#33

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

12/17/2018 9:55 AM

I am a retired electrical engineer and now a pastor and although this is in no way professional how to...

I have used a few of these types of o2 concentrates to build an oxygen supply to run a torch in glass blowing... a fellow tinkerers project I got roped into... after much research and a few trials and error s we did manage to salvage 2 units that said bad zeolite on them... I started by removing the cylinders from the two units and then removed the air splitter from the top of the cylinder... next got a 6 quart zip lock bag (put on a mask) placed the bottom of one cylinders in a vice clamp just the nut in the center.... now put two pieces of strong packing tape on the top lid of cylinder (this is to keep the internal compression spring from throwing the lid across the room) and remove the top lid screw remove your cylinder from the vice... then place it on the floor in a as not to damage the bottom air line...place one hand firmly on the lid and remove tape... the lid should come up as you lighten the grip on the lid... if not tap lightly on the rim of lid... hear is the important part... after lit and spring are removed place them in a container with a lid... then with long needle nose pliers reach into the cylinder and remove top filter... and pour the contents into the container you made earlier... clean cylinder after you remove the lower carbon filter be careful with the filters (I never did find replacements...) heat the contents to 450 Fahrenheit on an outside grill and maintain that temperature for about an hr ... then place contents in a large box with a house dehumidifier inside the box and the drain hose running out leave there 2 days before removing and vacuum sealing. . The dried contents will need separated the small beads are a different grade material than the larger ones and the smaller ones go in first then the larger ones...then reassemble and test...

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#34

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

08/25/2019 1:18 AM

I did some research on used oxygen concentrators and some elements might be of interest. The background is that I'm studying to be a professional jeweler. In my country, oxygen and gas welding tanks are not allowed in homes. Legal liabilities are important and the building where I live is almost entirely made out of wood. These circumstances imply rather sobering perspectives, so I needed to find alternative possibilities.

Even if my problem is still a privileged person's or a First World problem, I empathize with the point of view of the original poster. Sometimes plan B's are the only viable solution, and also why throw out perfectly good and reusable material just because of ignorance on how to make it reusable. We have to get out of this single use mentality whenever possible. Our planet's resources are not infinite, nor are many people's wallet. So viable alternative solutions have to be found and there is nothing shameful about this.

With some research I have found that professional chemists in various industries who use zeolite molecular sieves will routinely regenerate it by baking it at about 375°F for 2 hours, in order to remove humidity. The temperature range used is generally between 250°F to 450°F. Some other uses of zeolites are to remove oil vapors from specific types of machinery which include as part of the machine a heating apparatus to burn out oil vapors. Zeolite pellets can endure hundreds of burnout cycles before turning into dust. This obviously depends on the size of the pellets, which are noticeably smaller in oxygen concentrators. The burnout temperature for oil components has to be higher than what is necessary to evaporate water, which is at minimum 212°F or 100°C. Higher temperatures will cause zeolite pellets to crumble into dust faster. https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/general/need-advice-zeolite-oxygen-concentrator-353638/

Since air humidity contamination is a major nuisance for the effectiveness of oxygen concentrators, in very humid climates it could be helpful to install a water trap and also a dessicant air drier unit on the machine, which would certainly be easier to get to and heat up to regenerate than the zeolite cartridges. Maybe you could get some inspiration from this fellow Canadian who built a very nice oxygen concentrator starting from his expertise as a refrigeration technician. https://youtu.be/IoOtJodaKIw Nowadays there are other interesting videos on how to build an oxygen concentrator and how to fix them on YouTube.

It seems that zeolite is said to be both almost everlasting but also that it can go bad just by sitting on a shelf. Since zeolite is a very absorbant mineral, it is obvious that it can be affected by ambiant humidity over time. I spoke to the owner of C. R. C. Concentrator Repairs, a certified air concentrator technician who routinely refill or repack these cylinders or sink beds. Maybe times are a'changing after all. He has repair videos too. https://youtu.be/6h8hsZb-cZg

Also, the grade of zeolite that is suitable for oxygen concentrators is getting to be widely available at quite decent prices on Alibaba and I suppose in lower quantities on AliExpress, if this ends up to be the right solution. Maybe on IndiaMart too.

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#38

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/13/2020 1:58 AM

This is interesting. I have a relative who has a portable 5l oxygen concentrator and this reminds me I need to find out how to refill the zeolite, I am not sure if my relative is aware this needs to be done.

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#39
In reply to #38

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

01/13/2020 2:44 AM

You're right, many people don't realize that these machines too need maintenance.

On the good side, many or most recent oxygen concentrators have an indicator showing the percentage of oxygen they produce. The instructions for the machine should indicate what is the minimal level of efficiency acceptable, below which maintenance is needed.

You might also want to check the prefilter. Often it's a 2-layers system. Some people forget about it; but if the filter is dirty, it might restrict the flow of air into the machine and consequently the volume of oxygen produced.

Hoping everything goes well for you!

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#41
In reply to #39

Re: How to Refill Zeolite in Home Oxygen Concentrator

04/23/2020 1:37 AM

I only recently became interested in Zeolite refilling because I wanted to buy a low cost oxygen concentrator for my wife because she has immense immuno deficiencies and with the virus going everywhere in California, you never know when you might need one (they are today $275 on www.banggood.com).

Anyway, I built a Yong Heng compressor to fill up my 0.5 L scuba tanks. There are huge articles on this on YouTube. Anyway, to fill the tanks you must remove compressor oil and water vapor. This is done with cotton plug filters and zeolite molecular sieves. Look at the filter tubes available on eBay and Banggood. You fill some with cotton plugs to remove compressor oil and the other tube with zeolite to remove water vapor. It works well. There are articles on how to "bake" the zeolite pellets in an oven on special aluminum foil to drive off the water and then the zeolite can be used again. Same process with blue desiccant. I have tried it and it works. As everyone else has said, wear every piece of safety equipment you can find. The powder that comes off the pellets is bad news bears. Anyway, thought you might be interested to know how other industries uses the zeolite. Available on eBay for like $25/pound (5 Angstrum)

Ted Cooper

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