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Animal Science

The Animal Science Blog is the place for conversation and discussion about scientific and technological topics related to pets, livestock, and other animals. See how cutting-edge advances help - or hinder - species around the world. SavvyExacta is a lifelong animal enthusiast with more than 20 years of experience with horses. Freckles (an English setter) is a frequent topic on the blog. Other CR4 bloggers occasionally add great posts.

Toilets and Oysters

Posted October 19, 2016 12:00 AM by joeymac

Oysters were once plentiful in the New York Harbor in the 19th century but by the 20th century, overfishing, pollution and sewage destroyed the oysters and they were gone. Oysters are critical to the health of any water ecosystem. They provide habitat and food for other animals, they stabilize the bottom floor, and filter the water and increase water clarity. Since the oysters in New York Harbor have disappeared the harbor isn’t as clean or productive as it could be.

The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has come up with a plan to try and re-colonize oysters starting in Jamaica Bay, and this plan calls for using toilets. To create a self-sustaining population, the project will install a floating long line, or oyster nursery. It consists of trays which are filled with 50,000 adult oysters that will eventually spawn. Then the next phase is to construct receiver beds, and this is where the toilets come in. Some 5,000 toilets were broken into small pieces and will be put on the bottom of Jamaica Bay. The broken pieces of toilets will be combined with clam shells and oyster shells. In total, 50 cubic yards of oyster shells, 700 cubic yards of clam shells, and 180 cubic yards of porcelain will be used to create four man made reefs. It turns out that porcelain is the perfect surface for young oyster larvae to attach to and grow on. This will be a three year project to determine how many of the oysters actually attach and grow and their survival rate. As a side note, keep in mind that the oysters will not be safe to eat, now or at any point in the near future.


11 comments; last comment on 10/25/2016
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Managing Deer Populations for Auto Safety

Posted August 26, 2016 1:00 PM by HUSH
Pathfinder Tags: automotive deer ecology predator

It’s beginning to look a lot like deer season in upstate. Lately, the county routes around my home have been swarming with deer and fawns, which requires extra care when driving after dark. I’ve also found many prints and droppings around my yard.

For my deer hunter friend, who literally takes the entire month of deer gun season off from work, this is a sign of a robust population and good chances he’ll get at least one or two deer before winter.

Outright, I’m not pro- or anti-hunting. I am against poaching or needless slaughter of animals, but someone like my friend who butchers and keeps or gives away all the valuable parts of a deer are an essential part of the local ecosystem.

When the first settlers arrived in North America, deer were an invaluable food supply. This remains true today for many subsistence hunter-farmer communities, such as Native American reservations. Yet when settlers arrived here, wolves, coyotes, cougars and bears were among the other deer predators. Slowly, humans diminished these predator populations due to systematic eradication and overtaking their habitats. Eventually their numbers were reduced to the point where humans were the only predators with a significant impact on the deer population.

Deer populations reached a critical point in the early 1900s, just as conservation and environmentalism ideology began to take root. State and local game authorities now conduct randomized sampling to extrapolate annual dear populations, and consider that in relation to fawn recruitment rates (the percentage of fawns that make it through the summer), surveys and registered hunter reports. The number of white-tailed deer in the U.S. is well over 30 million, which is more deer than prior to European settlement according to this study (.pdf) by University of Nebraska – Lincoln.

While wolves and bears seem more menacing than deer, deer actually kill around 200 people per year in 1.2 million vehicle collisions. Sophie Gilbert, professor of wildlife ecology at the University of Idaho, is another scientist calling for more aggressive predator population rehab programs, which she believes will ultimately cull the deer population enough to reduce deer and vehicle collisions by 22 percent, saving 5 lives and nearly 700 injuries each year. In West Virginia, drivers have a 1 in 44 chance of having a deer collision.

Gilbert believes that 10,300 cougars distributed throughout Eastern states, where deer and car collisions are more common, would be a sufficient start. For those worried about potential cougar attacks on humans, Gilbert estimates only five additional cougar attacks per year would occur, and maybe one resultant death. It’s much tougher to predict how an extra 10,000 big cats in the Eastern U.S. would interact with livestock and pets, however.

Human conservation of deer has worked out so well it’s beginning to have a clear detriment. Deer hunting popularity has fallen steadily since 1983, despite a small uptick in the last U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service survey (.pdf). Perhaps it’s time to bring back the predators.

6 comments; last comment on 09/28/2016
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ICARUS Flies Again

Posted July 25, 2016 4:50 PM by BestInShow

In 2017, an ambitious wildlife-tracking project will quite literally get off the ground. ICARUS (International Cooperation for Animal Research Using Space) will install a radio receiver in the International Space Station (ISS) that will monitor movements of an assortment of small critters, from bats to birds to sea turtles. Scientists have used radios and GPS technology to track the migratory movements of large animals, including large birds, for 20 years or so. The ICARUS project marks the first time that wildlife biologists will be able to track flying foxes and European barn swallows, among at least 40 projects currently the project’s queue.

ICARUS takes off

ICARUS represents a remarkable conjunction of multi-national cooperation and support with vastly improved tracking technology and a serendipitous meeting between an ornithologist and a radio astronomer. Martin Wikelski, director of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, and George Swenson, a radio astronomer who helped pioneer radio telemetry, were in Panama, drinking beer and observing the canal, when Wikelski commented that wildlife trackers needed tiny transmitters – small enough for birds and even butterflies to wear – and a way to pick up signals from them, anywhere. Swenson told him radio astronomers do this all of the time: they scan the heavens for small radio sources. To track animals, Wikelski could put receivers in space to focus on earthbound critters.

Wikelski, mindful of Swenson’s warning that such a system would take 15 years to develop, started promoting the idea to potential supporters. NASA declined to participate, questioning the likelihood that Wikelski could accomplish his task. Ultimately the project garnered support from DLR, the German Aerospace Center; Roscosmos, Russia’s space agency; and Wikelski’s employer, the Planck Institute’s ornithology lab. The European Space Agency is also a supporter.

International Space Station. Image credit: Wikipedia

ICARUS Technology

Swenson accurately predicted the amount of time necessary to develop the extremely small, lightweight (5 gram) tags and tracking equipment. A team based at Bundeswehr University Munich, led by Prof. Andreas Knopp, has developed the complex transmitting and measuring techniques ICARUS requires, including the remarkable miniature transmitter. This team has packed impressive capabilities into this tiny package, including measuring GPS position and velocity, 3D-acceleration, heading in 3D, and temperature, plus the ability to transmit these data to the ISS. Previous tracking tags generally did not transmit data, which required recapturing the animal to download the accumulated information. Recapturing a bird is a lot more complicated that finding an elephant, so it’s hard to overstate the significance of this technical breakthrough. Space-based data collection equipment – which also store migration data in the global Movebank migration information database – will live in the Russian segment of the ISS.

ICARUS tag. Image credit:

Why do this?

Roland Keyes, one of the scientists associated with the project, says that ICARUS allows us to “use animals as sensors to tell us about our planet.” More specifically, what can animals tell us?

  • Where do Ebola-infected bats go? Seventy per cent of worldwide epidemic diseases (Ebola, SARS, West Nile, bird flu) are zoonotic. By tracking disease-vector movements, we could find out where to focus ameliorative efforts.
  • What migration routes do animals take? We can remove man-made obstacles and hazards that threaten different species, such as turning off wind turbines that decimate flocks of migrating bats.

Flying Fox Bats. Image credit: Wikipedia

  • How can we support species in decline? We need more migration-route information because populations of migratory birds like wood warblers, spotted
    fly-catchers and nightingales are declining fast, says the RSPB's Graham Madge.
  • What effects of climate change do aquatic species reveal? ICARUS tags are waterproof, enabling tracking of schools of fish and learning whether population densities are shifting.
  • Is specific animal behavior signaling a natural disaster, such as an earthquake? For example, Wikelski’s team conducted a two-year study, using transmitter collars to track the exact positions of goats that live on Mt. Etna’s slopes. The animals displayed unusual activity sufficiently prior to eruptions to enable accurate predictions.

ICARUS technology can track more than migrating animals. For example, tagging frequently-poached animals, like rhinoceroses, would enable law enforcement to identify animals and animal parts taken illegally. Another proposed application is protecting railroad rolling stock. ICARUS project staff estimate that 100K rail cars are stolen and scrapped worldwide each year. Since ICARUS tags are tiny and trackable from space, they could be more effective trackers than existing tags that use land-based networks. Mongolia suggested one of the first projects the ICARUS team will undertake: tracking the unauthorized “migration” of dinosaur bones from Mongolian sites.

The Future

The immediate future includes the 40 or so projects mentioned above. An intriguing possibility is figuring out how to send information to an animal’s tag, perhaps to change a migration trajectory. Could we someday prevent a horde of insects carrying a deadly disease from landing in a heavily populated area? Would we want to do that? The potential the ICARUS technology offers for both speculation and practical research is intriguing indeed.


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Following Ants Could End Traffic Jams

Posted July 11, 2016 2:06 PM by Chelsey H

It’s a fact of life – no one likes to sit in traffic. Watching people drive in a lane that’s clearly marked as ending in 400 ft. makes me crazy and rubberneckers should stay home and watch Cops.

But traffic happens and some companies, such as the app Waze, are making it their business to help people avoid traffic. Waze is a GPS app which links to users together to help reroute drivers on the “path of least resistance”. It does this by tracking users’ speed and direction as well as by having drivers input information such as a stalled car, crash, cops, etc. on the roads. This information is shared with other Waze users and the electronic bread crumbs help the app redirect a percentage of drivers to alternative routes.

What’s really interesting about this approach to traffic management is that it’s very similar to how ant colonies travel and communicate with each other.

The term “ant colony optimization” (ACO) is now a broadly used term that was originally credited to researcher Marco Dorigo in the ‘90s. ACO is a strategy for organizing movement largely based on actual ant behavior. As ants travel back and forth from food sources to their nest they leave a trail of pheromones. Other ants can smell the pheromone and choose the path with the strongest pheromone concentrations.

Similar to the Waze app, more feedback (AKA more pheromones) helps the ant choose the optimal path, while the pheromone concentrations evaporate on the sub-optimal paths. The term stigmergy is used to describe this mechanism of coordination used by insects. Specifically, that the insect leaves a trace in the environment that stimulates the performance of subsequent work.

Humans are not so efficient.

Ants have a strict, non-selfish adherence to optimizing their colony. In a recent experiment, ants were place in a chamber with two exits. Different levels of citronella oil were added to the chamber and the scientists tracked how ants exited from the chamber avoiding the citronella oil. The ants spread out over the area and more carefully arranged themselves ahead of time to avoid jamming the exits. The researchers ran a computer simulation to observe how humans would have responded in a similar situation and they immediately made for and began jamming the exits.

This tendency for humans to pursue “selfish routing” strategies, at the cost of the larger network, has long been noted in traffic. And one study shows that if one percent of drivers cancelled their trip, all drivers’ trips would be reduced by 18 percent.

What do you think? Will you cancel your commute today?

19 comments; last comment on 07/26/2016
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Mosquito PSA

Posted June 15, 2016 12:00 AM by Chelsey H

Hooray for summer! Get ready for the glorious sun, warm late-night campfires, beaches, and…. mosquitos. Ugh.

With mosquito-borne diseases like Zika and West Nile as major health concerns, it's important to take steps to preventing mosquito bites.

An easy way to do this is to get rid of their breeding ground. The Center for Disease Control recommends removing any collected water from your yard and from inside your house once a week. Standing water can be found hiding in old tires, clogged gutters, bird baths, and in a leftover cup from last week's backyard BBQ. Even the dish under a potted plant can hold enough water for mosquitoes to breed.

These bugs can also breed in the house, so be sure to check and change anything that collects water inside the house as well.

It's important to do this every week because the life cycle of a mosquito begins when one lays its egg on or near standing water. The egg turns to larva, pupa and then emerges as an adult in a week.

And don't forget - they're more attracted to you after a few brews!

2 comments; last comment on 07/15/2016
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