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Challenge Questions

Stop in and exercise your brain. Talk about this month's Challenge from Specs & Techs or similar puzzles.

So do you have a Challenge Question that could stump the community? Then submit the question with the "correct" answer and we'll post it. If it's really good, we may even roll it up to Specs & Techs. You'll be famous!

Answers to Challenge Questions appear by the last Tuesday of the month.

Stumped by the Screen: Newsletter Challenge (December 2017)

Posted November 30, 2017 5:01 PM
Pathfinder Tags: challenge question lcd Screen

This month's Challenge Question: Specs & Techs from GlobalSpec:

Viewing a common LCD display from straight on, you see a figure in pink. Tilting the screen so that it is at a sharp angle in your field of vision, the figure appears to have changed to bright blue. Why has the apparent color of the figure changed?

And the answer is:

The apparent change in color of images on the screen is due to the structure of the LCD screen.

A liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor’s screen is composed of millions of elements known as pixels (picture elements). Each pixel is made up of three individual subpixels: red, green and blue. Each of these subpixels controls the amount of light that passes through them, regulating the amount of each color emitted by a pixel. The mixture of the three primary colors determines the final color that the eye perceives for a given pixel.

An LCD is comprised of layers of filters, liquid crystals, and transistors. For each subpixel, light emitted by a backlight passes through a polarizing glass filter, travels through twisted, nematic liquid crystals, and continues through another polarizing glass filter.

The first glass filter polarizes light so that all light waves except those vibrating horizontally are blocked. The light passes to the liquid crystal layer where all of the light vibrating horizontally passes through since the liquid crystals are by default twisted to the correct orientation to allow horizontally vibrating light to pass. The light then arrives at the second glass filter, which is structured to only allow light vibrating vertically to pass. Since all of the light at this point is vibrating horizontally, none of it can pass through the second filter, resulting in a dark subpixel.

To illuminate the same subpixel, all that is needed is to twist the liquid crystals to the appropriate orientation. This is accomplished through the use of transistors. Each of the subpixels is controlled by a transistor that switches on and off to control the flow of electricity through each of the liquid crystals. When liquid crystals have current flowing through them, they twist and rotate light waves passing through them by 90 degrees. Rotating the horizontally vibrating light by 90 degrees causes it to vibrate vertically, allowing it to pass through the second glass filter. The result is an illuminated subpixel. A color filter over each subpixel gives each element its color.

The reason the figure on the screen appears to change color is that by tilting the screen you are viewing light escaping before it has passed through the liquid crystals and polarizing filters in the same manner as it does from a face-on angle. Colors that would have been blocked are therefore able to leak through, resulting in the apparent change in color.

For more on how colors are displayed on computer monitors, see this article.

16 comments; last comment on 12/07/2017
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Flying in the Shadow of the Moon: Newsletter Challenge (November 2017)

Posted October 31, 2017 5:01 PM
Pathfinder Tags: challenge question eclipse

This month's Challenge Question: Specs & Techs from GlobalSpec:

A new supersonic passenger airliner is due to take flight next year. A wealthy friend of yours suggests that in 2020 you both charter a flight from Namibia to Argentina to follow the track of the total solar eclipse. What is the problem with your wealthy friend’s suggestion?

And the answer is:

Total solar eclipses track eastward, not westward. This is because the Moon moves to the east in its orbit at about 3,400 km/hour and the Earth only rotates to the east at 1,670 km/hr at the equator, so the lunar shadow moves to the east at 3,400 – 1,670 = 1,730 km/hr near the equator. You cannot keep up with the shadow of the eclipse unless you traveled at Mach 1.5.

16 comments; last comment on 11/07/2017
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Mystical Magnetic Fields: Newsletter Challenge (October 2017)

Posted September 30, 2017 5:01 PM

This month's Challenge Question: Specs & Techs from GlobalSpec:

As you know, the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field changes with time, as does “North” on a compass. Some researchers have used old paintings, such the murals in the old Vatican Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), or ancient clay kilns to find compass directions for specific times in the past. How is this possible?

And the answer is:

The clay in the walls of ancient kilns contains the iron oxide magnets magnetite and hematite. These materials contain individual grains in which there are “ domains”—regions in which the magnetic fields of the material are uniform.

When the clay is heated to hundreds of degrees Celsius as the kiln is used, the domains already aligned with the Earth’s field increase in size while the others shrink. When the kiln cools after using the arrangement of the domains—and also the magnetic field of the clay—is retained. This is a well-known phenomenon called thermoremanent magnetism (TRM).

Many mural paintings—including the murals of the Vatican Library—contain hematite suspended in the liquid pigment of the paint. When the pigment is applied to the wall each hematite grain rotates in the liquid until it is aligned with the Earth’s magnetic field. When the paint dries the orientation of the grains is locked in place, and therefore indicate the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at the time of the painting.

Researchers have several methods to determine the orientation of the grains in a kiln or in the mural at any time.

13 comments; last comment on 10/10/2017
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Turbofan Tips: Newsletter Challenge (September 2017)

Posted August 31, 2017 5:01 PM
Pathfinder Tags: challenge question turbofan

This month's Challenge Question: Specs & Techs from GlobalSpec:

The low-pressure rotor of a PW100G-JM turbofan engine spins at a maximum rpm of 10,047. At what speed are the fan blade tips travelling at this rpm, and what (if any) noise concerns would this generate?

And the answer is:

Turbofan engines take advantage of momentum transfer efficiencies by moving large masses of air. A larger diameter turbofan moves more air, but must spin slower due to prevent the blade tips from reaching very high velocities.

The tip of a fan blade travels a greater distance than the section near the center for each revolution of the fan. For the same fan rotation speed (revolutions per minute), the tip of a fan blade will move at a higher speed (m/s) than the base of the blade. As fan diameter increases, the longer blades can cause blade tips to travel at very high speeds.

To calculate the blade tip speed, the fan diameter and fan rotational speed are needed. The Airbus A320neo is powered by the PW1100G-JM, which has a fan diameter of 81 inches. The maximum rotation speed of its low pressure rotor is 10,047 rpm. Since there is a gear train with a ratio of 1:3.0625 between the low pressure rotor and the fan, the maximum rotational speed of the fan is 10,047 / 3.0625 = 3,281 rpm.

Blade tip speed = π x D x S

Where

D is fan diameter, and

S is fan rotation speed

So the maximum blade tip speed of the PW1100G-JM is 353 m/s. [ π x (81 in) x (3,281 rpm) = 83,4912 x (0.0254 m/in) x (1 min / 60 sec) = 353 m/s ]

The speed of sound is 343 m/s, so the blade tips are travelling at supersonic speeds at maximum rpm. For a simple, straight-bladed propeller operating in free air, supersonic motion would cause shock waves to form, generating a large amount of noise. But in turbofan engines like the PW1100G-JM, the fan blades are shrouded by the casing around the engine. The casing or nacelle helps guide the airflow into the compression stage of the engine, minimizing shock waves. In addition, the casing has noise-reducing liners.

19 comments; last comment on 09/07/2017
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Mystery of the Part-time Stud Finder: Newsletter Challenge (August 2017)

Posted July 31, 2017 5:01 PM
Pathfinder Tags: challenge question Screen

This month's Challenge Question: Specs & Techs from GlobalSpec:

Steve recently moved into a new apartment and wants to use his father’s stud finder to help put up a TV mount. It’s a nice summer day, so Steve doesn’t mind driving to his parents’ house. After retrieving it he went back to his apartment and turned it on but the screen remained blank. He changed the batteries and still it didn’t work. Steve ended up guessing where the studs were. When he finished working he tried the stud finder again and this time it turned on. Why didn’t it work the first time?

And the answer is:

It’s a nice summer day, so it is sunny. When Steve drove to his parents’ house to get the stud finder he was wearing polarized sunglasses. The stud finder had an LCD screen, so the light coming from it was polarized. Steve forgot to take off his sunglasses when he went into his apartment. When he turned on the stud finder, his glasses blocked the polarized light from the screen and the display looked unchanged, thus he thought the battery had died. When the battery change didn’t work he assumed it was broken. Later, when he checked it again he had been in the house a while and taken off his polarized sunglasses, so it worked.

30 comments; last comment on 09/05/2017
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